Encyclopedia of Education and Information Technologies

2020 Edition
| Editors: Arthur Tatnall

Empowerment and Disempowerment in Peer Observation Within Pre-service Teacher, Technology-Assisted Integrated STEM Education

  • Duncan SymonsEmail author
  • Joanne Blannin
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-10576-1_178


STEM education has been receiving increasing attention over recent years. It is seen to offer the potential to enhance development of various “soft’ skills”; sometimes known as twenty-first century skills (Cronin 1996). These skills include, but are not limited to, creativity, innovation, critical thinking, decision-making, problem-solving, metacognition, collaboration, and communication.

STEM education is claimed to present a solution to preparing young people for jobs of the future. The Chief Scientist’s Office of Australia reports that there is a growing demand for STEM qualified employees (Prinsely and Barayai 2015).

Additionally, STEM education is seen as a potential approach to reversing high levels of disengagement with science and mathematics. Disengagement with these areas is reported to begin in primary school (Sullivan et al. 2006; Martin et al. 2012).

With the promise of STEM education as a rationale, academics within the University of Melbourne, Melbourne...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Melbourne Graduate School of EducationThe University of MelbourneCarltonAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Sam Goundar
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Information ManagementVictoria University of Wellington