Tsunami Watch and Warning Centers
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Tsunami. Japanese word literally meaning harbor wave (tsu + nami). Tsunamis are series of ocean gravity waves caused mainly due to undersea earthquakes and undersea volcanic activity, rarely due to submarine landslides and very infrequently due to meteor impacts.
Tsunamigenic earthquake. Large earthquake occurring mostly in subduction zones capable of generating tsunami.
National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC). A center officially designated by the government for collating and disseminating tsunami warnings/advisories and other related information within its country according to established national Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs).
Tsunami Service Provider (TSP). A center that monitors seismic and sea level activity and issues timely tsunami forecast information within an Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) framework to NTWCs/TWFPs and other TSPs operating within an ocean basin. TSPs may also act as NTWCs providing tsunami warnings for their own countries.
The authors would like to specially thank Ms. Sunanda Manneela for compiling information in the preparation of the manuscript, and Mr. Ch. Patanjali Kumar, Mr. R. S. Mahendra, Dr. P. L. N. Murty, Mr. Ajay Kumar, and Mr. J. Padmanabham for providing graphical inputs and in developing the manuscript. The authors are grateful to Dr. S. S. C. Shenoi, Director, ESSO-INCOIS for encouragement and cooperation.
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