Bioactive Compounds of Bael (Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa)

  • Hosakatte Niranjana MurthyEmail author
  • Medha A. Bhat
  • Dayanand Dalawai
Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)


Bael [Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa] is an important fruit yielding and medicinal tree which is indigenous to Indian subcontinent. Fruits, leaves, stem, stem bark, root, and root bark of Aegle marmelos are utilized in Ayurvedic system of medicine to cure majority of human ailments. Aegle marmelos fruits are having dietary and nutraceutical importance and are used in the preparation of jam, squash, toffee, slab, and wine. Extracts of fruits, leaves, stem, stem bark, root, and root bark of Aegle marmelos as well as isolated compounds have been demonstrated to possess several medicinal properties which have been widely employed. In this review, we presented the nutritional status of Aegle marmelos fruits, chemical compounds isolated from different parts of the Aegle marmelos plant, and pharmacological properties of Aegle marmelos extracts and their purified compounds.


Aegle marmelos Bael Biological activities Pharmacology Phytochemicals 



HNM is thankful to DST-PURSE phase-2 program and UGC-BSR midcareer award grant [No. F.19-223/2018(BSR)].


  1. 1.
    Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass RS, Anthony S (2009) Agroforestree database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (1935) Indian medicinal plants, vol 1. Lalit Mohan Basu, Allahabad, p 499Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shoba FG, Thomas M (2001) Study of antidiarrhoeal activity of four medicinal plants in castor-oil induced diarrhoea. J Ethnopharmocol 76:73–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bhardwaj RL, Nandal U (2015) Nutritional and therapeutic potential of bael (Aegle marmelos Corr.) fruit juice: a review. Nutr Food Sci 45:895–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gopalan C, Ramashastri BV, Balasubramanian SC (2002) Nutritive value of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Parichha S (2004) Bael (Aegle marmelos), nature’s most natural medicinal fruit. Orissa Rev:16–17Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chakthong S, Weaaryee P, Puangphet P, Mahabusarakam W, Plodpai P, Voravuthikunchai SP, Kanjana-Opas A (2012) Alkaloid and coumarins from the green fruits of Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 75:108–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sharma BR, Sharma P (1981) Constituents of Aegle marmelos II. Alkaloids and coumarins from fruits. Planta Med 43:102–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sharma BR, Pattan RK, Sharma P (1981) Marmeline, an alkaloid and other components of unripe fruits of Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 20:2606–2607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Saha SK, Chatterjee A (1957) Isolation of alloimperatorin and β-sitosterol from the fruits of Aegle marmelos. J Indian Chem Soc 34:228–230Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hasitha P, Dharmesh SM (2018) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of marmelosin from Bael (Aegle marmelos L.); inhibition of TNF-α mediated inflammatory/tumor markers. Biomed Pharmacother 106:98–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shinde PB, Katekhaye SD, Mulik MB, Laddha KS (2014) Rapid simultaneous determination of marmelosin, umbelliferone and scopoletin from Aegle marmelos fruit by RP-HPLC. J Food Sci Technol 51:2251–2255PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bhattacherjee AK, Dikshit A, Pandey D, Tandon DK (2013) High performance liquid chromatographic determination of marmelosin and psoralen in bael (Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.) fruit. J Food Sci Technol 52:597–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dhalwal K, Shinde VM, Namdeo AG, Mahadik KR (2008) Antioxidant profile and HPTLC-densitometric analysis of umbelliferone and psoralen in Aegle marmelos. Pharm Biol 46:266–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Prakash D, Upadhyay G, Pushpangadan P, Gupta C (2011) Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits. J Complement Integr Med 8:1–16. Article 23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rastogi RM, Mehrotra BN (1990) Compendium of Indian medicinal plants, vol 1. Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, pp 388–389Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Charoensiddhi S, Anprung P (2008) Bioactive compounds and volatile compounds of Thai bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa) as a valuable source for functional food ingredients. Int Food Res J 15:287–295Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Basak RK, Mandal PK, Mukherjee AK (1981) Studies on a neutral polysaccharide isolated from bael (Aegle marmelos) fruit pulp. Carbohydr Res 97:315–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yadav N, Tyagi G, Jangir DK, Mehrotra R (2011) Rapid determination of polyphenol, vitamins, organic acids and sugars in Aegle marmelos using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography plant materials. J Pharm Res 4:717–719Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goel RK, Maiti RN, Manickam M, Ray AB (1997) Antiulcer activity of naturally occurring pyrano-coumarin and isocoumarins and their effect on prostanoid synthesis using human colonic mucosa. Indian J Exp Biol 35:1080–1083PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mandal PK, Mukherjee AK (1980) Structural investigations on bael exudates gum. Carbohydr Res 84:147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mandal PK, Mukherjee AK (1981) Studies on the bael (Aegle marmelos) seed glycoproteins. Carbohydr Res 90:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Katagi KS, Munnolli RS, Hosamani KM (2011) Unique occurrence of unusual fatty acid in the seed oil of Aegle marmelos Corr: screening the rich source of seed oil for bio-energy production. Appl Energy 88:1797–1802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Child R (1935) The seed oil of Aegle marmelos, Corr. J Am Chem Soc 57:356–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Banerjee A, Nigam SS (1979) Studies on the fixed oil from the seeds of Aegle marmelos Corr. J Am Oil Chem Soc 56:647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ali MS, Pervez MK (2004) Marmenol: a 7-geranyloxycoumarin from the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr. Nat Prod Res 18:141–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Govindachari TR, Premila MS (1983) Some alkaloids from Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 22:755–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chatterjee A, Bose S, Srimany SK (1959) Studies on the constitution, stereochemistry and synthesis of aegeline, an alkaloidal-amide of Aegle marmelos Correa. J Org Chem 24:687–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Patra A, Mitra AK, Ghosh A, Mukhopadhyay PK (1981) Carbon-13 NMR spectra of tembamide, aegeline and related amides. Org Magn Reson 16:65–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Riyanto S, Sukari MA, Rahmani M, Ee GCL, Taufiq-Yap YH, Aimi N, Kitajima M (2001) Alkaloids from Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae). Malaysian J Anal Sci 7:463–465Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Manandhar MD, Shoeb A, Kapil RS, Popli SP (1978) New alkaloids from Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 17:1814–1815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chakravarti RN, Dasgupta B (1956) Sterol from Aegle marmelos. Experientia 12:335–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chatterjee A, Sen R, Ganguly D (1978) Aegelinol, a minor lactonic constituent of Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 17:328–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Goswami S, Gupta VK, Sharma A, Gupta BD (2005) Supramolecular structure of S-(+)-marmesin- a linear dihydrofuranocoumarin. Bull Mater Sci 28:725–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chatterjee A, Bhattacharya A (1959) The isolation and constitution of Marmin, a new coumarin from Aegle marmelos Correa. J Chem Soc 1959:1922–1924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chatterjee A, Mitra SS (1949) On the constitution of the active principle isolated from the matured bark of Aegle marmelos, Correa. J Am Chem Soc 71:606–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chatterjee A, Choudhury A (1955) The structure of marmin, a new coumarin of Aegle marmelos Correa. Sci Nat 42:512–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mookerjee A (1943) On the active principle of the bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. Curr Sci 12:209Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Radhika Samarasekera JKR, Khambay BPS, Hemalal KP (2004) A new insecticidal protolimonoid from Aegle marmelos. Nat Prod Res 18:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Basu D, Sen R (1974) Alkaloids and coumarins from root-bark of Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 13:2329–2330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shoeb A, Kapil RS, Popli SP (1973) Coumarins and alkaloids of Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 12:2071–2072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Farooq S (2005) 555 medicinal plants: field and laboratory manual. International Book Distributors, Dehradun, pp 40–42Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Laphookhieo S, Phungpanya C, Tantapakul C, Techa S, Tha-in S, Narmdorkmai W (2011) Chemical constituents from Aegle marmelos. J Braz Chem Soc 22:176–178Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lampronti I, Martello D, Bianchi N, Borgatti M, Lambertini E, Piva R, Jabbar S, Choudhari MSK, Khan MTH, Gambari R (2003) In vitro antiproliferative effects on human tumor cell lines of extracts from the Bangladeshi medicinal plant Aegle marmelos Correa. Phytomedicine 10:300–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS (2005) Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa inhibits the proliferation of transplanted Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 28:58–64Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Subramaniam D, Giridharan P, Murmu N, Shankarnarayanan NP, May R, Houchen CW, Ramanujam RP, Balakrishnan A, Vishwakarma RA, Anant S (2008) Activation of apoptosis by 1-hydroxy-5,7dimethoxy-2-naphthalene-carboxaldehyde (HDNC), a novel compound from Aegle marmelos. Cancer Res 68:8573–8581PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Agrawal A, Verma P, Goyal PK (2010) Chemomodulatory effects of Aegle marmelos against DMBA-induced skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 11:1311–1314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gupta N, Agrawal RC, Shrivastava V, Roy A, Prasad P (2012) Chemopreventive potential of Aegle marmelos fruit extract against 7, 12-Dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice. Res J Pharmacol Pharmacodyn 4:87–90Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Singh RP, Banerjee S, Rao AR (2000) Effect of Aegle marmelos on biotransformation enzyme systems and protection against free-radical-mediated damage in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 52:991–1000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Khan TH, Sultana S (2011) Effect of Aegle marmelos on DEN initiated and 2-AAF promoted hepatocarcinogenesis: a chemopreventive study. Toxicol Mech Methods 21:453–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rao CV, Ojha Amresh SK, Mehrotra S, Pushpangadan P (2003) Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic activity of the unripe fruits of Aegle marmelos. Acta Pharm Turc 45:85–91Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Arul V, Miyazaki S, Dhananjayan R (2005) Studies on the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr. J Ethnopharmacol 96:159–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Benni JM, Jayanthi MK, Suresha RN (2011) Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of Aegle marmelos (Bilwa) root. Indian J Pharmacol 43:393–398PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Vyas A, Bhargava S, Bhargava P, Shukla S, Pandey R, Bhadauria R (2011) Evaluation of antipyretic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa leaves. Orient J Chem 27:253–257Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Misra P, Pal NL, Guru PY, Katiyar JC, Tandon JS (1991) Antimalarial activity of traditional plants against erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium berghei. Int J Pharmacog 29:19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sahare KN, Anandhraman V, Meshram VG, Meshram SU, Reddy MVR, Tumane PM, Goswami K (2008) Anti-microfilarial activity of methanolic extract of Vitex negundo and Aegle marmelos and their phytochemical analysis. Indian J Exp Biol 46:128–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kamalakkannan N, Prince PSM (2005) The effect of Aegle marmelos fruit extract in streptozotocin diabetes: a histopathological study. J Herb Pharmacother 5:87–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sabu MC, Kuttan R (2004) Antidiabetic activity of Aegle marmelos and its relationship with its antioxidant properties. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 48:81–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Upadhya S, Shanbhag KK, Suneetha G, Naidu MB (2004) A study of hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 48:476–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kumar V, Ahmed D, Verma A, Anwar F, Ali M, Mujeeb M (2013) Umbelliferone β-d-galactopyranoside from Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. an ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity. BMC Complement Altern Med 13:273PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jagetia GC, Baliga MS (2004) The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study. J Med Food 7:343–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Khan TH, Sultana S (2009) Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Aegle marmelos Correa. against CCl4-induced oxidative stress and early tumor events. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 24:320–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rajasekaran C, Kalaivani T, Ramya S, Jayakumararaj R (2009) Studies on hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. J Pharm Res 2:1419–1423Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Singh R, Rao HS (2008) Hepatoprotective effect of the pulp/seed of Aegle marmelos Correa ex Roxb against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. Int J Green Pharm 2:232–234Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kesari AN, Gupta RK, Singh SK, Diwakar S, Watal G (2006) Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract in normal and diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmocol 107:374–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mudi SR, Akhter M, Biswas SK, Muttalib MA, Choudhury S, Rokeya B, Ali L (2017) Effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos fruit and leaf on glycemic, insulinemic and lipidemic status of type 2 diabetic model rats. J Complement Integr Med 14:20160111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Farshchi A, Ghiasi G, Farshchi S, Ghobadi AT (2011) The effect of chronic administration of Aegle marmelos seed extract learning and memory in diabetic rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci 14:42–48Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rajadurai M, Prince PSM (2005) Comparative effects of Aegle marmelos extract and alpha-tocopherol on serum lipids, lipid peroxides and cardiac enzyme levels in rats with isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Singap Med J 46:78–81Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kamalakkannan N, Prince PSM (2003) Hypoglycaemic effect of water extracts of Aegle marmelos fruits in streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 87:207–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Das AV, Padayatti PS, Paulose CS (1996) Effect of leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. on histological and ultrastructural changes in tissues of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 34:341–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kar A, Choudhary BK, Bandyopadhyay NG (2003) Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 84:105–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sharma B, Satapathi SK, Roy P (2007) Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of Aegle marmelos (L.) leaf extract on streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Int J Pharmacol 3:44–452Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pitre S, Srivastava SK (1987) Pharmacological, microbiological and phytochemical studies on roots of Aegle marmelos. Fitoterapia 58:194–197Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jyothi SK, Rao BS (2010) Antibacterial activity of extracts from Aegle marmelos against standard pathogenic bacterial strains. Int J PharmTech Res 2:1824–1826Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Saha R, Nesa A, Nahar K, Akter M (2016) Anti-diabetic activities of the fruit Aegle marmelos. J Mol Biomark Diagn 7:1–5Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Balakumar S, Rajan S, Thirunalasundari T, Jeeva S (2011) Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 1:309–312PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rana BK, Singh UP, Taneja V (1997) Antifungal activity and kinetics of inhibition by essential oil isolated from leaves of Aegle marmelos. J Ethnopharmacol 57:29–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Badam L, Bedekar SS, Sonawane KB, Joshi SP (2002) In vitro antiviral activity of Bael (Aegle marmelos Corr) upon human coxsackieviruses B1–B6. J Commun Dis 34:88–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Balasubramanian G, Sarathi M, Kumar SR, Hameed ASS (2007) Screening the antiviral activity of Indian medicinal plants against white spot syndrome virus in shrimp. Aquaculture 263:15–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dhar MI, Dhar MM, Dhawan BN, Mehrotra BN, Ray C (1968) Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part I. Indian J Exp Biol 6:232–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Madhu C, Hindu K, Sudeepthi CD, Maneela P, Reddy KV, Sree BB (2012) Antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos leaves on rats. Asian J Pharm Res 2:132–135Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sharma GN, Dubey SK, Sati N, Sanadya J (2011) Ulcer healing potential of Aegle marmelos fruit seed. Asian J Pharm Life Sci 1:172–178Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ramakrishna YG, Savithri K, Kist M, Devaraj SN (2015) Aegle marmelos fruit extract attenuates Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide induced oxidative stress in Sprague Dawley rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 15:375PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Dhuley JN (2004) Investigation on the gastroprotective and antidiarrhoeal properties of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit extract. Hindustan Antibiot Bull 46:41Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mazumder R, Bhattacharya S, Mazumder A, Pattnaik AK, Tiwary PM, Chaudhary S (2006) Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of Aegle marmelos (Correa) Linn. root extract. Phytother Res 20:82–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Brijesh S, Daswani P, Tetali P, Antia N, Birdi T (2009) Studies on the antidiarrhoeal activity of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit: validating its traditional usage. BMC Complement Altern Med 9:47PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gautam MK, Ghatule RR, Singh A, Purohit V, Gangwar M, Kumar M, Goel RK (2013) Healing effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa fruit extract on experimental colitis. Indian J Exp Biol 51:157–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ghatule RR, Gautam MK, Goel S, Singh A, Joshi VK, Goel RK (2014) Protective effects of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp on 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis. Pharmacogn Mag 10:S147–S152PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Krushna G, Kareem MA, Devi K (2009) Antidyslipidaemic effect of Aegle marmelos Linn. fruit on isoproterenol induced myocardial injury in rats. Internet J Pharmacol 6:1–6Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Krushna GSS, Kareem MA, Reddy VD, Padmavathi P, Hussain SA, Kodidhela LD (2012) Aegle marmelos fruit extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr 50:199–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Prince PSM, Rajadurai M (2005) Preventive effect of Aegle marmelos leaf extract on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats: biochemical evidence. J Pharm Pharmacol 57:1353–1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Vijaya C, Ramanathan M, Suresh B (2009) Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaf of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic model of Wister albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol 47:182–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS (2004) Fruit extract of Aegle marmelos protects mice against radiation-induced lethality. Integr Cancer Ther 3:323–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P (2007) Inhibition of radiation-induced clastogenicity by Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa in mice bone marrow exposed to different doses of γ-radiation. Hum Exp Toxicol 26:111–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS (2004) Evaluation of the radioprotective effect of bael leaf (Aegle marmelos) extract in mice. Int J Radiat Biol 80:281–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Patel P, Asdaq SMB (2010) Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic fruit extract of Aegle marmelos in experimental animals. Saudi Pharm J 18:161–165PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Agarwal R, Gupta SK, Srivastava S, Saxena R, Agrawal SS (2009) Intraocular pressure-lowering activity of topical application of Aegle marmelos fruit extract in experimental animal models. Ophthalmic Res 42:112–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Chauhan A, Agarwal M (2008) Reversible changes in the antifertility induced by Aegle marmelos in male albino rats. Syst Biol Reprod Med 54:240–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Baliga MS, Thilakchand KR, Rai MP, Rao S, Venkatesh P (2012) Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael) and its phytochemicals in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Intgr Cancer Ther 12:187–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Slamenova D, Horvathova E, Wsolova L, Sramkova M, Navarova J (2009) Investigation of anti-oxidative, cytotoxic, DNA-damaging and DNA-protective effects of plant volatiles eugenol, and barneol in human-derived HepG2, Caco-2 and VH10 cell lines. Mutat Res 677:46–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Chaouki W, Leger DY, Liagre B, Beneytout JL, Hmamouchi M (2009) Citral inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 23:549–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Saleem M, Maddodi N, Abu Zaid M, Khan N, Bin Hafeez B, Asim M, Suh Y, Yun JM, Setaluri V, Mukhtar H (2008) Lupeol inhibits growth of highly aggressive human metastatic melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis. Clin Cancer Res 14:2119–2127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hata K, Hori K, Murata J, Takahashi S (2008) Remodeling of actin cytoskeleton in lupeol-induced B16 2F2 cell differentiation. J Biochem 138:467–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Saleem M, Kaur S, Kweon MH, Adhami VM, Afaq F, Mukhtar H (2005) Lupeol, a fruit and vegetable based triterpene, induces apoptotic death of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells via inhibition of Ras signaling pathway. Carcinogenesis 26:1956–1964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Prasad S, Madan E, Nigam N, Roy P, George J, Shukla Y (2009) Induction of apoptosis by lupeol in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through regulation of mitochondrial, Akt/PKB and NFkappaB signaling pathways. Cancer Biol Ther 8:1632–1639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Saleem M, Kweon MH, Yun JM, Adhami VM, Khan N, Syed DN, Mukhtar H (2005) A novel dietary triterpene lupeol induces fas-mediated apoptotic death of androgensensitive prostate cancer cells and inhibits tumor growth in a xenograft model. Cancer Res 65:11203–11213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Zhang L, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Yang X, Lu Z (2009) Lupeol, a dietary triterpene, inhibited growth, and induced apoptosis through down-regulation of DR3 in SMMC7721 cells. Cancer Investig 27:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN (1995) Compendium of Indian medicinal plants, vol 4. Central Drug Research Institute/National Institute of Science Communication, Lucknow/New Delhi, p 15Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ogata M, Hoshi M, Urano S, Endo T (2000) Antioxidant activity of eugenol and related monomeric and dimeric compounds. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 48:1467–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Vidhya N, Devaraj SN (1999) Antioxidant effect of eugenol in rat intestine. Indian J Exp Biol 37:1192–1195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Vimal V, Devaki T (2004) Linear furanocoumarin protects rat myocardium against lipid peroxidation and membrane damage during experimental myocardial injury. Biomed Pharmacother 58:393400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Parasakthy K, Deepalakshmi PD, Shanthy S, Niranjali SD (1993) The hepatoprotective action of eugenol. Med Sci Res 21:611–612Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Alam MM, Siddiqui MB, Husain K (1990) Treatment of diabetes through herbal drug in rural India. Fitoterapia 61:240–242Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Banerjee AK, Kaul VK, Nigam SS (1984) Chemical, microbial and anthelmintic examination of the seeds of Aegle marmelos Corr. Indian Drugs 21:217–218Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jain NK (1977) Antifungal activity of essential oil of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae). Indian Drug Pharma Ind 12:55Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Dubey NK, Mishra AK (1990) Evaluation of some essential oil against dermatophytes. Indian Drugs 27:529–531Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mishra DN, Dixit V, Mishra AK (1991) Mycotoxic evaluation of some higher plants against ringworm causing fungi. Indian Drugs 28:300–303Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Yadav P, Dubey NK (1994) Screening of some essential oils against ringworm fungi. Indian J Pharm Sci 56:227–230Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Valsaraj R, Pushpangadan P, Smitt UW, Adsersen A, Nyman U (1997) Antimicrobial screening of selected medicinal plants from India. J Ethnopharmacol 58:75–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Singh KV, Bhatt SK, Sthapak JK (1983) Antimicrobial and anthelmintic properties of the seeds of Aegle marmelos. Fitoterapia 54:261–264Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Takase H, Yamamoto K, Hirano H, Saito Y, Yamashita A (1994) Pharmacological profile of gastric mucosal protection by marmin and nobiletin from a traditional herbal medicine, Aurantii fructus immaturus. Jpn J Pharmacol 66:139–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Surve VS, Ghangale GR, Tamhankar SP, Gatne MM (2008) Studies on antidiarrhoeal activity of Aegle marmelos (bael) in rats. J Bombay Vet Coll 16:27–33Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Arul V, Kumaraguru S, Dhananjayan R (1999) Effects of aegeline and lupeol-the two cardioactive principles isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr. J Pharm Pharmacol 51:252Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Singh A, Sharma HK, Kaushal P, Upadhyay A (2014) Bael (Aegle marmelos Correa) products processing: a review. Afr J Food Sci 8:204–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Maity P, Hansda D, Bandyopadhyay U, Mishra D (2009) Biological activities of crude extracts and chemical constituents of Bael, Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Indian J Exp Biol 47:849–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Baliga MS, Bhat HP, Joseph N, Fazal F (2011) Phytochemistry and medicinal uses of the bael fruit (Aegle marmelos Correa): a concise review. Food Res Int 44:1768–1775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Baliga MS, Bhat HP, Pereira MM (2010) Radioprotective effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael): a concise review. J Altern Complement Med 16:1109–1116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Medha A. Bhat
    • 1
  • Dayanand Dalawai
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyKarnatak UniversityDharwadIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vishwas Anant Bapat
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyShivaji UniversityKolhapurIndia

Personalised recommendations