Advertisement

Bioactive Compounds of Salacia chinensis L

  • Shrikant PatilEmail author
  • Parthraj Kshirsagar
Living reference work entry
  • 75 Downloads
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Different plant parts and water extracts of Salacia have extensively been consumed in many Asian countries as a food supplement to prevent obesity and diabetes. Studies suggest that extracts of Salacia chinensis regulate multiple enzymes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, viz., α-glucosidase, aldose reductase, and pancreatic lipase. The major phyto-constituents of S. chinensis are thiosugar sulfonium sulfates such as salacinol, kotalanol, ponkoranol, and salaprinol and their corresponding de-0-sulfonated compounds. In addition, triterpenes, sesquiterpenes, lignans, xanthones, flavanols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins have been reported in S. chinensis extracts, which are attributed to other important medicinal properties. Phenolic glycosides, megastigmane glycosides, and certain triterpenes such as foliasalacins and 1,3-diketofriedelane derivatives have not been studied in detail for their pharmaceutical potentials.

Keywords

Antidiabetic Antiobesity Kotalanol Mangiferin Salacia chinensis Salacinol 

1 Introduction

Salacia chinensis is a large straggling shrub or woody climber (Fig. 1) that belongs to family Celastraceae (Hippocrateacae). It is widely spread across tropical forests of South and Southeast Asian countries [1, 2], including Indian subcontinent [3]. The fruits (berries) are round or ovate; ripened fruits are red in color (Fig. 1b). The sweet, translucent, and jelly-like pulp surrounding the seeds of the fruit is edible. Ripened fruits are a rich source of minerals and vitamins and are eaten by rural populations [2]. Extract of Salacia functions as an antidiabetic as it modulates multiple pathways of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, including inhibition of α-glucosidase activity [4, 5]. Extracts from their stems and roots have long been used in treatment of rheumatism, asthma, skin diseases, irregular menstruation, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and venereal diseases [6, 7]. Clinical studies have already indicated the efficiency of Salacia extracts without any toxic effects [2, 8]. In this chapter, we have elucidated phyto-constituents from S. chinensis and their potential pharmaceutical applications.
Fig. 1

Different parts of Salacia chinensis (a) growing shrub in wild, (b) twigs with fruits, and (c) flower (Photo courtesy Dr. Jay Chavan)

2 Phytochemical Constituents

Novel thiosugar sulfonium sulfate salts salacinol, kotalanol, ponkoranol, and salaprinol are the major phyto-constituents of Salacia having antidiabetic activity [5, 9]. Although subsequent studies have reported their de-0-sulfonates, viz., neosalacinol, neokotalanol, neoponkaranol, and neosalaprinol, respectively (Fig. 2), these are minor components in most Salacia extracts [10]. Another potent antidiabetic phytochemical mangiferin, an inhibitor of sucrase, aldose reductase, and isomaltase, has been found in the extracts of S. chinensis and other related species [2, 11].
Fig. 2

Representative novel biochemical compounds isolated from Salacia chinensis [5]

A range of phytochemicals have been isolated from S. chinensis. The list of phytochemicals isolated from S. chinensis is summarized in Table 1. Polyphenols and flavonoids, isolated recently, are found abundantly in root and stem than that of fruits and seeds. Gallic acid, catechol, ferulic acid, and salicylic acid are the major polyphenols in the roots, whereas catechol was abundant in the fruits of S. chinensis [16]. Various flavanols such as epigallocatechin, epicatechin, and epiafzelechin have been isolated from the extracts which have exhibited antioxidant activity [16, 23].
Table 1

Phytochemicals isolated from Salacia chinensis

Chemical class

Phytochemicals

Plant part

Solvent used

Ref.

Thiosugar sulfonium sulfates

Salacinol, kotalanol, salaprinol, ponkoranol, neosalacinol, neokotalanol, and neosalaprinol

Stem and root

Methanol/water

[5, 9]

Neoponkoranol and neosalaprinol

Stem

Water

[5, 12]

Megastigmane glycosides

Foliasalaciosides: A1,A2, B1, B2, C, D, E1, E2, E3, F, G, H, and I

Stem and leaves

Methanol

[13]

Phenolic glycosides

Foliachinenosides: A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, C, and D

Leaves

Methanol

[14, 15]

Phenolic acids

Gallic acid, ethyl gallate, and ellagic acid

 

Methanol

[16, 17]

Triterpenes

Friedel-1-one-3-one

Friedelane-1,3-dione-7α-ol

Friedelane-1,3-dione-24-al

Root bark

[18]

D:B-friedobaccharane-type foliasalacins: D1, D2, and D3

Leaves

Methanol

[19]

Foliasalacins

Dammarane-type: A1, A2, A3, A4

Lupane-type: B1, B2, B3

Oleanane-type: C

Leaves

Methanol

[20]

1,3-diketofriedelane derivatives

P, Q, S, T, and U

Root bark

Hexane

[21]

Friedelane-like derivative R

25, 26-oxido-friedel-1, 3-dione

Root bark

Hexane

[21, 22]

Friedelane-type triterpenes

Salasone D and salasone E

Norfriedelane-type triterpene: salaquinone B

Stem

80% aqueous methanol

[23]

28-hydroxy-3-oxo-30-lupanoic acid; 3-oxo-lupane-30-al; 29-nor-21α-H-hopane-3, 22-dione; 21α-H-hop-22(29)-ene-3β, 30-diol; and botulin

Stem

n-Hexane

[24]

Friedelane derivatives

Friedel-1-en-3-one

Friedelane-1,3-dione

1,3-dioxofriedelan-24-al

7a-hydroxy-friedelane-1.3-dione

Root bark

Methanol

[25]

Norfriedelane-type triterpenes:tigenone, tingenine B, regeol A, and triptocalline A

Stem

Methanol

[26]

Ursan-type triterpenes: Tripterygic acid A and D emethylregelin

Stem

Methanol

[26]

Oleanane-type triterpenes

3ß,22 ß-dihydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid, maytenfolic acid, ß-Amyrin, 22α-Hydroxy-3-oxoolean-12-en-29-oic acid and ß-amyrenone

Stem

Methanol

[26]

Lupeol; Lup-20 (29)-en-3beta30-diol

30-Hydorxylup-20 (29)-en-3-one

3, 22-dioxo-29-normoretane; ursolic acid

beta-Sitosterol and beta-Daucosterol

[17]

Sesquiterpene

Agarofuran-type sesquiterpenes: Celahin C

Stem

Aqueous methanol

[23]

Polyacylated eudesmane-type sesquiterpene:salasol B

Stem

Aqueous methanol

[23]

Lignans

(+) lyoniresinol, (+) isolariciresinol, and (+)-8-methoxyisolariciresinol

  

[26]

Xanthone

Mangiferin

[26]

Flavanols

(−)-epigallocatechin, (−)-epicatechin, and (+)-catechin

[26]

Flavonoids

Quercetin; quercetin-3′, 4′-dimethyl ether; isorhamnetin and kaempferol-4′-methyl ether

[17]

Fatty acids

Hentriacontanol and Hentriacontan-12-ol

[17]

Ketones

1,3-diketone A; 1,3-diketone B

Root bark

[27]

Proanthocyanidin

Leucopelargonidin monomer:Pentaacetate and trimethyl ether

Leucopelargonidin dimer with free glycerol group

Nonacetate and hexamethyl ether

Leucopelargonidin dimer without free glycerol group: Octaacetate and hexamethyl ether

Leucopelargonidin tetramer:Heptadecaacetate and dodecamethyl ether

Root bark

Acetone and rectified spirit

[28]

Lignins, norfriedelane-type triterpene, and catechin constituents from S. chinensis stem were found to have free radical scavenging properties [26]. Leucopelargonidin-type proanthocyanidins were reported from stems and roots in monomeric, dimeric, and tetrameric states in the same plant source [28].Various triterpenes such as tigenone, tingenine B, regeol A and triptocalline A, oleanane type triterpenes, and sesquiterpenes like celahin C and salasol D were also isolated [26]. Triterpenoids such as friedelanes [21, 26], lupanes [17], hopanes, and foliasalacins [20] are some of the abundant phyto-constituents in root and stem [29].

3 Pharmacognosy

Salacia chinensis extracts that contain thiosugar sulfonium salts act as inhibitors α-glucosidase and thus induce antidiabetic and antihyperglycemic activities [4, 5, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36]. α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of salacinol and other related compounds .is as effective as that of acarbose and voglibose, which are commonly used in the clinical studies.

Other medicinal properties of S. chinensis include anti-obesity, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, nephroprotective, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. Summary of pharmacological investigations on S. chinensis extracts as well as isolated compounds is presented in Table 2. Many other phyto-constituents isolated from S. chinensis have not yet been tested for their medicinal or nutraceutical applications.
Table 2

Pharmacological investigations on Salacia chinensis

Sr. no

Activity

Model system/assay used

Part/extract used

Conclusions

Ref.

1

Antidiabetic

Sucrose or maltose loaded rats

Methanolic extract of stems

Inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidase and lens aldose reductase from rat eyes

[30]

α-glucosidase inhibition activity assay

Aqueous and methanolic extracts of roots, stems, and seeds

Inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidase. Seeds and stems can be good alternative to roots so as to conserve plant from overexploitation for roots. Aqueous extracts showed better inhibition than that of methanolic extract

[29]

ob/ob mice

Hot water extract of the stems

Aqueous extract intake suppressed the elevation of blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels (due to neokotalanol), with no significant changes in food intake and body weight

[33]

Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Oral dose of mangiferin isolated from methanolic root extract

Antidiabetic activity of S. chinensis mangiferin was due to increased insulin secretion and the increased activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in kidney

[37]

2

Hypoglycemic

KK-Ay mice

Hot water extract of stems

Salacinol, kotalanol, and neokotalanol proved to be inhibitors of human and mice α-glucosidase. Salacinol, neosalacinol, kotalanol, and neokotalanol are highly stable in gastric juices

[5]

Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Aqueous extract of dried stem

Oral administration of extract facilitates increase in the glycoalbumin levels by enhancing the uptake of glucose by organs, and not by raising insulin secretion or inhibiting α-glucosidase. Thus, helping in improving diabetic condition

[38]

Double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study on healthy human volunteers

Aqueous alcoholic extract of roots and stems

After carbohydrate-rich food intake, postprandial plasma glucose levels were reduced significantly when extracts of roots and stems were administered

[31, 32]

Double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study on healthy human volunteers

Capsules containing ethanolic extract of roots

When patients fed with sucrose and S. chinensis capsules, postprandial plasma glucose levels and insulin levels were reduced significantly due to phyto-constituents present in extracts of roots and stems

[35]

3

Immunomodulatory

Swiss albino rats

Aqueous extracts

Lower extract concentration can boost the immune system; however, at higher concentrations immune response can be reduced

[39]

4

Blood tonic

Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Oral dose of mangiferin isolated from methanolic root extract

Mangiferin isolated from S. chinensis showed antidiabetic activity by enhancing the activities of glycolytic enzymes. Improved levels of blood cells and their indices

[36, 40]

5

Hepatoprotective

D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes

Methanolic extract of leaves

Lignans, eleutheroside E2, and 7R,8S-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were protective effects on hepatocytes

[41]

Wistar strain of albino rats with CCl4-induced hepatic damage

Ethanolic extract of root bark

Extract cures hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride through reduction in level of serum enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALP, and bilirubin

[42]

6

Anti-obesity anti-hyperlipidemic

Humans and albino mice

Dehydrated powder

Reduction in mean blood glucose levels (fasting as well as postprandial blood sugar levels), reduction in serum triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, decrease in body weight, no significant toxicity was found in the liver, kidney, and intestine

[43]

Triton-induced and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rat

Chloroform extract and ethanol extract of root

Reduction in serum lipid parameters such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, and increase in high-density lipoprotein. Hence good adjuvant with current therapy in treatment of hyperlipidemia

[34]

7

Hypotensive

For hypotensive activity, estrous female rats, and for vasodilator activities, isolated thoracic aortic rings

n-butanol extract from stems

Injection of extract decreased mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate of anesthetized rats. Extract also caused vasodilatation of thoracic aortic rings in vitro, thus suggesting that extract from stems possesses hypotensive activity

[44]

8

Nephro-protective

Diabetic chronic kidney disease patients

Dried extract

After extract administration, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance in kidney suggest that extract may slow down or stop the progression of chronic kidney disease

[45]

9

Antimutagenic

Ames assay and chromosomal aberration induction by mutagens in Salmonella spp.

Mangiferin isolated from methanolic extract of roots

Ethanol extract of mangiferin from S. chinensis were highly effective in reducing the mutagenicity caused by various mutagens

[2]

10

Anticancer

Cancer cell lines: Hep-G2 (liver cancer), LU (lung cancer), KB (mouth cancer), and MCF-7 (breast cancer)

Eight triterpenoids isolated from methanolic extracts of leaves

7α,21α-dihydroxyfriedelane-3-one, 28-hydroxy-3-oxo-30-lupanoic acid, and 3,4-seco-friedelane-3-oic acid were cytotoxic to all four cancer cells

[46]

11

Antimicrobial

Broth dilution and disk diffusion methods

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves

Ethanolic extracts were more effective as antimicrobial (antifungal and antibacterial) as compared to water extracts

[47]

12

Reproductive success

Sprague-Dawley rats

Dehydrated extract

Even higher doses of plant extract has no negative effects on reproductive success, and growth and development of offsprings in rats suggests that S. chinensis extract has no toxic effects

[8]

13

Antioxidant

DPPH assay

Methanolic extract of dried stem

Stem extracts constituents such as norfriedelane-type triterpene, lignan, and catechin possess radical scavenging activity

[23]

DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, and DMPD assays

Root, stem, leaf, fruit pulp, and seed with various solvents

Steam bath extraction was most suitable among various extraction techniques for the extraction of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidants

[16]

4 Conclusion

Traditionally, S. chinensis root extracts and decoctions have been used in treatment of type 2 diabetes and many other human ailments and disorders. Other plant parts such as stem, leaves, and fruits contain medicinally important phytochemicals. However, roots contain considerably higher amounts of salacinol and related compounds as compared to other plant parts. With the advent of new technologies for isolation and characterization of phytochemicals, many new compounds have been identified and proved to have diverse medicinal properties. This will certainly lead to overexploitation of the roots and other plant parts; hence conservation strategies have to be implemented carefully. Alternative biotechnological approaches, such as tissue culture, metabolic engineering, and other modern methods of omics studies, need to be developed to enhance contents of medicinally important compounds in this plant.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors SP thank to UGC New Delhi for Dr. D. S. Kothari fellowship award and PK thanks to SERB New Delhi for NPDF award.

References

  1. 1.
    Jayaweera DMA (1981) Medicinal plants (indigenous and exotic) used in Ceylon. National Science Council of Sri Lanka, ColomboGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Govindaraj Y, Melanaphuru V, Agrahari V, Gupta S, Nema RK (2009) Genotoxicity studies of Magiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis Linn. Acad J Plant Sci 2:199–204Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Singh NP, Vohra JN, Hajra PK, Singh DK (2000) Flora of India. Calcutta: Botanical survey of India vol. 5. p. 150–162Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yoshikawa M, Pongpiriyadacha Y, Kishi A, Kageura T, Wang T, Morikawa T, Matsuda H (2003) Biological activities of Salacia chinensis originating in Thailand: the quality evaluation guided by alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Yakugaku Zasshi 123:871–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morikawa T, Akaki J, Ninomiya K, Kinouchi E, Tanabe G, Pongpiriyadacha Y, Yoshikawa M, Muraoka O, Morikawa T, Akaki J, Ninomiya K, Kinouchi E, Tanabe G, Pongpiriyadacha Y, Yoshikawa M, Muraoka O (2015) Salacinol and related analogs: new leads for type 2 diabetes therapeutic candidates from the Thai traditional natural medicine Salacia chinensis. Nutrients 7:1480–1493.  https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031480CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V (2002) Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential. J Ethnopharmacol 81:81–100.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00059-4CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arunakumara K, Subasinghe S (2011) Salacia reticulata Wight: a review of botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Trop Agric Res Ext 13:41–47.  https://doi.org/10.4038/tare.v13i2.3137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jihong Y, Shaozhong L, Jingfeng S, Kobayashi M, Akaki J, Yamashita K, Tamesada M, Umemura T (2011) Effects of Salacia chinensis extract on reproductive outcome in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 49:57–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.09.031CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yoshikawa M, Xu F, Nakamura S, Wang T, Matsuda H, Tanabe G, Muraoka O (2008) Salaprinol and ponkoranol with thiosugar sulfonium sulfate structure from Salacia prinoides and α- glucosidase inhibitory activity of ponkoranol and kotalanol desulfate. Heterocycles 75:1397–1405.  https://doi.org/10.3987/COM-07-11315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Akaki J, Morikawa T, Miyake S, Ninomiya K, Okada M, Tanabe G, Pongpiriyadacha Y, Yoshikawa M, Muraoka O (2014) Evaluation of Salacia species as anti-diabetic natural resources based on quantitative analysis of eight sulphonium constituents: a new class of α-glucosidase inhibitors. Phytochem Anal 25:544–550.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pca.2525CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chavan JJ, Ghadage DM, Kshirsagar PR, Kudale SS (2015) Optimization of extraction techniques and RP-HPLC analysis of antidiabetic and anticancer drug Mangiferin from roots of ‘Saptarangi’ (Salacia chinensis L.). J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 38:963–969.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10826076.2014.999199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xie W, Tanabe G, Akaki J, Morikawa T, Ninomiya K, Minematsu T, Yoshikawa M, Wu X, Muraoka O (2011) Isolation, structure identification and SAR studies on thiosugar sulfonium salts, neosalaprinol and neoponkoranol, as potent α-glucosidase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem 19:2015–2022.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2011.01.052CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhang Y, Nakamura S, Pongpiriyadacha Y, Matsuda H, Yoshikawa M (2008) Absolute structures of new megastigmane glycosides, foliasalaciosides E(1), E(2), E(3), F, G, H, and I from the leaves of Salacia chinensis. Chem Pharm Bull(Tokyo) 56:547–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nakamura S, Zhang Y, Wang T, Matsuda H, Yoshikawa M (2008) New phenolic glycosides from the leaves of Salacia chinensis. Heterocycles 75:1435–1446.  https://doi.org/10.3987/COM-08-11338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yoshikawa M, Nakamura S, Zhang Y, Pongpiriyadacha Y, Wang T, Matsuda H (2008) Megastigmane glycosides from the leaves of Salacia chinensis. Heterocycles 75:131–143.  https://doi.org/10.3987/COM-07-11193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ghadage DM, Kshirsagar PR, Pai SR, Chavan JJ (2017) Extraction efficiency, phytochemical profiles and antioxidative properties of different parts of Saptarangi (Salacia chinensis L.) – an important underutilized plant. Biochem Biophys Reports 12:79–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrep.2017.08.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gao X-H, Xie N, Feng F (2008) Studies on chemical constituents of Salacia prinoides. Zhong Yao Cai 31:1348–1351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tewari NC, Ayengar KNN, Rangaswami S (1971) Structure of some crystalline components of Salacia prenoides. Curr Sci 40:601–602Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang Y, Nakamura S, Wang T, Matsuda H, Yoshikawa M (2008) The absolute stereostructures of three rare D:B-friedobaccharane skeleton triterpenes from the leaves of Salacia chinensis. Tetrahedron 64:7347–7352.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2008.05.054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yoshikawa M, Zhang Y, Wang T, Nakamura S, Matsuda H (2008) New triterpene constituents, foliasalacins A 1 -A 4, B 1 -B 3, and C, from the leaves of Salacia chinensis. ChemInform 39:915–920.  https://doi.org/10.1002/chin.200848179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Joshi BS, Kamat VN, Viswanathan N (1973) Triterpenes of Salacia prinoides DC. Tetrahedron 29:1365–1374.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4020(01)83157-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rogers D, Williams DJ, Joshi BS, Kamat VN, Viswanathan N (1974) Structure of a new triterpene ether from Salacia prinoides dc: x-ray investigation of the dibromo derivative. Tetrahedron Lett 15:63–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(01)82137-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kishi A, Morikawa T, Matsuda H, Yoshikawa M (2003) Structures of new friedelane- and norfriedelane-type triterpenes and polyacylated eudesmane-type sesquiterpene from Salacia chinensis LINN. (S. prinoides DC., Hippocrateaceae) and radical scavenging activities of principal constituents. Chem Pharm Bull(Tokyo) 51:1051–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Minh TT, Nguyen THA, Thang VD, Van Sung T (2008) Study on chemical constituents of Salacia chinensis L. collected in Vietnam. Zeitschrift fur Naturforsch - Sect B J Chem Sci 63:1411–1414.  https://doi.org/10.1515/znb-2008-1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tewari NC, Narayan Ayengar KN, Rangaswami S (1974) Triterpenes of the root-bark of Salacia prenoides DC. J Chem Soc Perkin 1(1):146–152.  https://doi.org/10.1039/P19740000146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Morikawa T, Kishi A, Pongpiriyadacha Y, Matsuda H, Yoshikawa M (2003) Structures of new Friedelane-type triterpenes and Eudesmane-type Sesquiterpene and aldose reductase inhibitors from Salacia chinensis.  https://doi.org/10.1021/NP0301543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Heymann H, Bhatnagar SS, Fieser LF (1954) Characterization of two substances isolated from an Indian shrub. J Am Chem Soc 76:3689–3693.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01643a028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Krishnan V, Rangaswami S (1967) Proanthocyanidins of Salacia chinensis linn. Tetrahedron Lett 8:2441–2446.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(00)90828-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Patwardhan A (2015) Evaluation of anti-diabetic property of extracts of different plant parts of Salacia chinensis Linn. J Biodiversity, Bioprospecting Dev 01:107.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2376-0214.1000107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Matsuda H, Morikawa T, Yoshikawa M, Morikawa T, Tanabe G, Muraoka O (2005) Antidiabetogenic constituents from Salacia species. J Trad Med 22:145–153Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Koteshwar P, Kadur RR, Allan JJ, Goudar K, Kudiganti V, Agarwal A (2013) Effect of NR-Salacia on post-prandial hyperglycemia: a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogn Mag 9:344.  https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.117831CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kobayashi M, Akaki J, Yamashita K, Morikawa T, Ninomiya K, Muraoka O, Yoshikawa M (2010) Suppressive effect of the tablet containing Salacia chinensis extract on postprandial blood glucose. J Diabetes Res 38:545–550Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kobayashi M, Akaki J, Yamaguchi Y, Yamasaki H, Ninomiya K, Pongpiriyadacha Y, Yoshikawa M, Muraoka O, Morikawa T (2019) Salacia chinensis stem extract and its thiosugar sulfonium constituent, neokotalanol, improves HbA1c levels in ob/ob mice. J Nat Med 73:584–588.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11418-019-01311-wCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sikarwar MS, Patil MB (2012) Antihyperlipidemic activity of Salacia chinensis root extracts in triton-induced and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Indian J Pharm 44:88–92.  https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.91875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jeykodi S, Deshpande J, Juturu V (2016) Salacia extract improves postprandial glucose and insulin response: a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study in healthy volunteers. J Diabetes Res 2016:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7971831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sellamuthu PS, Arulselvan P, Fakurazi S, Kandasamy M (2014) Beneficial effects of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis on biochemical and hematological parameters in rats with streptozotocininduced diabetes. Pak J Pharm Sci 27:161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sellamuthu PS, Arulselvan P, Muniappan BP, Kandasamy M (2012) Effect of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis regulates the kidney carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2:S1583–S1587.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60457-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shirakawa J, Arakawa S, Tagawa T, Gotoh K, Oikawa N, Ohno R, Shinagawa M, Hatano K, Sugawa H, Ichimaru K, Kinoshita S, Furusawa C, Yamanaka M, Kobayashi M, Masuda S, Nagai M, Nagai R (2016) Salacia chinensis L. extract ameliorates abnormal glucose metabolism and improves the bone strength and accumulation of AGEs in type 1 diabetic rats. Food Funct 7:2508–2515.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C5FO01618ECrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sumalatha RBP, Ballal SR, Acharya S (2012) Studies on immunomodulatory effects of Salacia chinensis L. On albino rats. J Appl Pharm Sci.  https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2012.2920
  40. 40.
    Sellamuthu PS, Muniappan BP, Perumal SM, Kandasamy M (2009) Antihyperglycemic effect of mangiferin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. J Health Sci 55:206–214.  https://doi.org/10.1248/jhs.55.206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nakamura S, Zhang Y, Matsuda H, Ninomiya K, Muraoka O, Yoshikawa M (2011) Chemical structures and hepatoprotective effects of constituents from the leaves of Salacia chinensis. Chem Pharm Bull(Tokyo) 59:1020–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Asuti N (2010) Hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of root bark of Salacia chinensis. J Pharm Res 3:833–834Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Venkatasubramanian C, Devi R, Rohini E (2011) Effect of dehydrated Salacia prinoides on experimental mice and on NIDDM subjects. Indian J Sci Technol 4:366–372.  https://doi.org/10.17485/IJST/2011/V4I3/30002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jansakul C, Jusapalo N, Mahattanadul S (2005) Hypotensive effect of n-butanol extract from stem of Salacia chinensis in rats. Acta Hortic 678:107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Singh RG, Rathore SS, Kumar R, Usha AA, Dubey GP (2010) Nephroprotective role of Salacia chinensis in diabetic CKD patients: a pilot study. Indian J Med Sci 64:378.  https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5359.100341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Minh TT, Anh NTH, Thang VD, Van ST (2010) Study on chemical constituents and cytotoxic activities of Salacia chinensis growing in Vietnam. Zeitschrift fur Naturforsch - Sect B J Chem Sci 65:1284–1288.  https://doi.org/10.1515/znb-2010-1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kannaiyan M, Manuel VN, Raja V, Thambidurai P, Mickymaray S, Nooruddin T (2012) Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis Linn. Against human pathogens. Asian Pacific J Trop Dis 2:S416–S420.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S2222-1808(12)60194-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyShivaji UniversityKolhapurIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyAmity UniversityMumbaiIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vishwas Anant Bapat
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyShivaji UniversityKolhapurIndia

Personalised recommendations