Menopause and Bone Metabolism

  • ML. BrandiEmail author
  • L. Di Medio
Living reference work entry
Part of the Endocrinology book series (ENDOCR)


The hormonal changes that take place at menopause are the most important reason why women are at greater risk of osteoporosis than men.

Fragility fractures osteoporosis related are a relevant cause of disability and excess mortality in postmenopausal women.

General measures such as calcium and vitamin D supplementation or physical exercise could be very useful for prevention of fragility fractures.

The use of registered drugs is recommended when the health benefits overcome the risks. The FRAX® algorithm is a scientifically validated risk assessment tool that improves identification of patients at high risk of fracture.

Antiresorptive agents are the predominant therapeutic category for preventing fractures, and bisphosphonates are still the most commonly used. However, new and more effective therapies are nowadays available for prevention and treatment of bone loss.


Postmenopause Osteoporosis Fragility fractures Antiosteoporotic therapy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.FirmoLab Fondazione F.I.R.M.OFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.University of Florence, Metabolic Bone Diseases Unit, University Hospital of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

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