Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Living reference work entry
Part of the Endocrinology book series (ENDOCR)


Since the first successful in vitro fertilization pregnancy (IVF), the progress of assisted reproduction has been surprising. With developments such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), egg and sperm donation, preimplantation diagnosis, and aneuploidy screening, there are many more couples who can benefit from assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

Endocrine dysfunctions represent the indication for treatments in 5–19.8%, and probably these figures are underestimated. The evaluation and treatment of women with poor ovarian reserve and polycystic ovarian (PCO) syndrome in ART remain a challenge. Numerous protocols and procedures have been proposed, but none has yet reached sufficient evidence.

In this chapter, the most used techniques of assisted reproduction and newer developments are discussed, as well as the possible complications associated with ART. Furthermore, the strategies employed during the procedure in patients with reduced ovarian reserve and PCO have been deepened.


Assisted reproductive technologies IVF ICSI Poor responder PCO 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi Ostetricia e ginecologiaFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical SciencesUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  3. 3.Assisted Reproduction CenterCareggi University HospitalFlorenceItaly

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