Advertisement

Leadership in Virtual Organizations: Influence on Workplace Engagement

  • Thomas KohntoppEmail author
  • Jack McCann
Living reference work entry
  • 3 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter will present the concept of a virtual organization and the role, responsibilities, and practices for leaders in these organizations. Corporations operate globally. Small- to medium-sized companies residing in a single country still rely on international suppliers and markets, among other things. As technology improves, develops, and advances, globalization will become more pronounced for all companies. Considering this technological trend, the virtual structure will likely become more prevalent. This chapter will also present models of leadership and how practical and effective they can be in a virtual platform. From a performance standpoint, employee engagement will be investigated, specifically considering how it functions under the “virtual” condition. Virtual organizations are highly suited to globalization and an international perspective will also be addressed. Finally, suggestions and recommendations will be offered to help virtual companies energize employee engagement.

References

  1. Acs Z, Preston L (1997) Small and medium-sized enterprises. Technol Glob 9(9):1–6Google Scholar
  2. AT&T (2019) Connectivity impact of future technologies and services. Retrieved from https://about.att.com/pages/5G
  3. Avolio BJ, Kahai S (2003) Adding the “E” to E-leadership: how it may impact your leadership. Organ Dyn 31:325–338.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-2616(02)00133-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avolio BJ, Kahai S, Dodge G (2001) E-leadership: implications for theory, research, and practice. Leadersh Q 11:615–667.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(00)00062-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barczak G, McDonough E, Athanassiou N (2006) So you want to be a global project leader? Res Technol Manag 49(3):28–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bass BM (1997) Does the transactional-transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries? Am Psychol 52:130–139.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.2.130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bass BM (1999) Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership. Euro J Work Organ Psychol 8(1):9–32.  https://doi.org/10.1080/135943299398410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bejleri E, Fishta A (2017) Toward virtual business. Mediterr J Soc Sci 8(3):275–280.  https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2017.v8n3p275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burma ZA (2014) New organization structures: virtual organizations. Int J Eng Appl Sci 6(2):18–27Google Scholar
  10. Busch E, Nash J, Bell BS (2011) Remote work: an examination of current trends and emerging issues. Retrieved from http://author.ilr.cornell.edu/cahrs/research/upload/Spring2011_CAHRSRemoteWorkReport.pdf
  11. Cascio WF (2000) Managing a virtual workplace. Acad Manag Exec 14(3):81–90Google Scholar
  12. Chandani A, Mehta M, Mall A, Khokhar V (2016) Employee engagement: a review paper on factors affecting employee engagement. Indian J Sci Technol 9(15):1–7.  https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i15/92145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Choi SB, Tran TBH, Kang S-W (2017) Inclusive leadership and employee well-being: the mediating role of person-job fit. J Happiness Stud 18(6):1877–1901.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-016-9801-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clemons D, Kroth M (2011) Managing the mobile workforce. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Cooper CD, Kurland NB (2002) Telecommuting, professional isolation, and employee development in public and private organizations. J Organ Behav 23:511–532.  https://doi.org/10.1002/job.145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cross R, Taylor S, Zehner D (2018) Collaboration without burnout. Harv Bus Rev 134–137, July–August. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2018/07/collaboration-without-burnout
  17. Daft RL (2015) The leadership experience, 6th edn. Cengage Learning, StamfordGoogle Scholar
  18. Dagher GK, Chapa O, Junaid N (2015) The historical evolution of employee engagement and self-efficacy constructs: an empirical examination in a non-western country. J Manag Hist 21(2):232–256.  https://doi.org/10.1108/JMH-05-2014-0116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deresky H (2014) International management: managing across borders and cultures: text and cases, 8th edn. Pearson, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  20. Drew S (1994) Downsizing to improve strategic position. Manag Decis 32(1):4–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DuBrin AJ (2013) Leadership: research, findings, practice, and skills, 7th edn. South-Western, MasonGoogle Scholar
  22. Eisenberg J, Krishnan A (2018) Addressing virtual work challenges: learning from the field. Organ Manag J 15(2):78–94.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15416518.1471976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fisher K, Fisher MD (2001) The distance manager. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Gibbons J (2006) Employee engagement: a review of current research and its implications. The Conference Board, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Gibson JW, Blackwell CW, Dominicis P, Denerath, N (2002) Telecommuting in the 21st century: benefits, issues, and a leadership model which will work. J Lead Organ Studies 8:75–86.  https://doi.org/10.1177/107179190200800407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gilson LL, Maynard MT, Jones-Young NC, Vartiainen M, Hakonen M (2014) Virtual teams research: 10 years, 10 themes, and 10 opportunities. J Manag 20(10):1–25.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206314559946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gladys A (2014) A phenomenological study of the lived experiences of employees who work virtually and their perceptions of leadership behaviors that create a successful virtual organization. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from ProQuest LLC (UMI 3619351)Google Scholar
  28. Grove AS (1995) A high-tech CEO updates his views on managing and careers. CNNMoney, Cable News Network, Time Warner, September 18. Retrieved from http://Money.Cnn.Com/Magazines/Fortune/Fortune_Archive/1995/09/18/206087/Index.htm
  29. Hambley LA, O’Neill T, Kline T (2007) Virtual team leadership: perspectives from the field. Int J E-Collaboration 3(1):40–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hammonds KH (2006) The Starbucks effect. Fast Company 106(June):31–33Google Scholar
  31. Ho VT, Astakhova MN (2018) Disentangling passion and engagement: an examination of how and when passionate employees become engaged ones. Hum Relat 71(7):973–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hogan R, Kaiser RB (2005) What we know about leadership. Rev Gen Psychol 9:169–180.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.9.2.169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hunton JE, Norman CS (2010) The impact of alternative telework arrangements on organizational commitment: insights from a longitudinal field experiment. J Inform Syst 24(1):67–90.  https://doi.org/10.2308/jis.2010.24.1.67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Imperatori B (2017) Engagement and disengagement at work: what’s new. In: Mahagaonkar P (ed) Engagement and disengagement at work. Springer briefs in business. Springer, ZurichCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Iriqat RAM, Khalaf DMS (2018) Does building trust enhance the effect of e-leadership on the organizational commitment? Empirical evidence from Islamic Banks in Palestine. Mod Appl Sci 12(9):98–107.  https://doi.org/10.5539/mas.v12n9p98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Joshi A, Lazarova MB, Liao H (2009) Getting everyone on board: the role of inspirational leadership in geographically dispersed teams. Organ Sci 20(1):240–252.  https://doi.org/10.1287/Orse.1080.0383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. ITA (2019) Improve retention and engagement by enhancing the employee experience. ITA Group, West Des Moines. Retrieved from https://www.itagroup.com/employee-experienceGoogle Scholar
  38. Kanter RM (2001) Power, leadership, and participatory management. Theory Into Pract 20(4):219–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kohntopp T, McCann J (2018) Servant leadership in the workplace. In: Dhiman S, Roberts GE, Crossman JE (eds) Handbook of workplace spirituality and fulfillment. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, pp 1–30.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61929-3_11-1. ISBN 978-3-319-62164-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kratzer J, Leenders RTAJ, Van Engelen JML (2004) Managing creative team performance in virtual environments: an empirical study in 44 R&D teams. Technovation 26(1):42–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2004.07.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Krumm S, Kanthak J, Hartmann K, Hertel G (2016) What does it take to be a virtual team player? The knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics required in virtual teams. Hum Perform 29(2):123–142.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08959285.2016.1154061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kuscu M, Hasan A (2016) Virtual leadership at distance education teams. Turk Online J Dist Educ 17(3):136–156Google Scholar
  43. Layng JM (2016) The virtual communication aspect: a critical review of virtual studies over the last 15 years. J Literacy Technol 17(3):172–218. ISSN: 1535-0975Google Scholar
  44. Lee MA (2014) Leading virtual project teams: adapting leadership theories and communications techniques to 21st century organizations. CRS Press Taylor & Francis Group, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  45. Leonard B (2011) Managing virtual teams. HR Magazine 56:39–42Google Scholar
  46. Lepsinger R (2017) 3 companies with high-performing virtual teams. Best Practices in Human Resources, October 23. Retrieved from https://www.bestpracticeinhr.com/3-companies-with-high-performing-virtual-teams/
  47. Lukić JM, Vračar MM (2018) Building and nurturing trust among members in virtual project teams. Strateg Manag 23(3):10–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Makarius EF, Larson BZ (2017) Changing the perspective of virtual work: building virtual intelligence at the individual level. Acad Manag Perspect 31(2).  https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2014.0120. Published Online: 1 May 2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Malhotra A, Majchrzak A, Rosen B (2007) Leading virtual teams. Acad Manag Perspect 60–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Meyer E (2010) The four keys to success with virtual teams. Forbes, August 19. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/2010/08/19/virtual-teams-meetings-leadership-managing-cooperation.html#53ed19e130cc
  51. Miller A (1949) Death of a salesman: certain private conversations in two acts and a requiem. Viking Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. Minton-Eversole T (2012) Virtual teams used most by global organizations, survey says, July 19. Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/ResourcesAndTools/hr-topics/organizational-and-Employee-development/Pages/VirtualTeamsUsedMostbyGlobalOrganizations,SurveySays.aspx
  53. Morello D, Burton B (2006) Future worker 2015: extreme individualization. Gartner G00138172:1–19Google Scholar
  54. Nafukho FM, Graham CM, Muyia HMA (2010) Harnessing and optimal utilization of human capital in virtual workplace environments. Adv Dev Hum Res 12(6):648–664.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422310394791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nauman S, Khan AM, Ehsan N (2009) Patterns of empowerment and leadership style in project environment. Int J Proj Manag 28(2009):638–649.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2009.11.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Odubiyi BO, Oke AE (2016) Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of virtual team in Nigerian construction industry. Organ Technol Manag Construction 8(1):1422–1428.  https://doi.org/10.1515/otmcj-2016-0003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Otfinoski D (2010) How to train and retain your virtual employees? My Bus Assist. Retrieved from http://mybusinessassistantblogs.com/how-to-train-and-retain-yourvirtual-employees/
  58. Padilla A, Hogan R, Kaiser RB (2007) The toxic triangle: destructive leaders, susceptible followers, and conducive environments. Leadersh Q 18:176–194.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Perry G (2008) Virtual teams now a reality. Retrieved from http://www.pr.com/press-release/103409
  60. Peters P, den Dulk L, De Ruijter J (2010) Equality, diversity and inclusion: an international journal. Emerald Art 29(5):517–531.  https://doi.org/10.1108/0261015011052799Google Scholar
  61. Phillips JM, Gully SM (2014) Organizational behavior. Southwestern Cengage Learning, MasonGoogle Scholar
  62. Picincu A (2019) Types of virtual meetings. Chron. Retrieved from https://work.chron.com/types-virtual-meetings-15729.html
  63. Poulsen S, Ipsen C (2017) In times of change: how distance managers can ensure employees’ wellbeing and organizational performance. Saf Sci 100(A):37–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.05.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Purvanova RK (2014) Face-to-face versus virtual teams: what have we really learned? Psychol Manager J 17(1):2–29.  https://doi.org/10.1037/mgr0000009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Quisenberry WL (2018) Exploring how emotional intelligence contributes to virtual teams: interpretive analysis of a phenomenological study. Eur Sci J 14(5):19–39.  https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2018.v14n5p19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Renu AA (2014) E-leadership- a new and modern style of leadership. Int J Adv Manag Econ 3(5):88–93Google Scholar
  67. Roy SR (2012) Digital mastery: the skills needed for effective virtual leadership. Int J E-Collaboration 8(3):56–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schulze J, Krumm S (2017) The “virtual team player”: a review and initial model of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics for virtual collaboration. Organ Psychol Rev 7(1):66–95.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2041386616675522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Segan S (2018) What is 5G? PCMag.com, December 14. Retrieved from https://www.pcmag.com/article/345387/what-is-5g
  70. Serrat O (2017) Managing by walking around. In: Knowledge solutions. Springer, Singapore, pp 321–324.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-0983-9_35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shepherd S, Hagstrom MW (2015) Join the lovefest: how to successfully turn a company virtual. Strateg HR Rev 14(5).  https://doi.org/10.1108/SHR-08-2015-0060
  72. Society of Human Resource Management (2012) Virtual teams used most by global organizations, survey says. Society for Human Resource Management, July 19. Retrieved from http://www.shrm.org/hrdisciplines/orgempdev/articles/pages/virtualteamsusedmostbyglobalorganizations,surveysays.aspx
  73. Solomon CM (2000, May) Don’t forget your telecommuters. Workforce 56–61Google Scholar
  74. Tartell R (2019) Virtual leadership-closing the distance. Retrieved from https://trainingmag.com/trgmag-article/virtual-leadership%E2%80%94closing-distance
  75. Thuermer KE (2006) Options abound as integration of the global supply chain becomes a top priority. World Trade 19(6):17–21Google Scholar
  76. US Department of Commerce (2017) A communique on the G-20 Digital Economy Ministerial, April 20. Retrieved from https://www.commerce.gov/news/fact-sheets/2017/04/communique-g-20-digital-economy-ministerial
  77. Walker A (2010) Out of sight, out of mind? Managing the teleworker. Gartner G00206935:1–9Google Scholar
  78. Weber MS, Kim H (2015) Virtuality, technology use, and engagement within organizations. J Appl Commun Res 43(4):385–407.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00909882.2015.1083604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. XpertHR (2019) Improve employee engagement checklist. Reed Business Information, New Providence. Retrieved from https://www.xperthr.com/policies-and-documents/improve-employee-engagement-checklist/23993/?keywords=employee+engagement+checklistGoogle Scholar
  80. Yu S (2008) How to make teleworking work: widespread adoption of telecommuting programs is often hindered by non-technical factors. Commun News 30–32Google Scholar
  81. Yukl G (2006) Leadership in organizations, 6th edn. Prentice Hall Inc., Upper RiverGoogle Scholar
  82. Zafar A, Abumelha M, Alharthi M, Jammal M, Alghamdi N, Khoja S (2015) Virtual organization as a strategic tool: past, present and future. Int J Comput Syst 2(4):108–114Google Scholar
  83. Zofi YS (2011) A manager’s guide to virtual teams. AMACOM, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Management and TechnologyWalden UniversityMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of BusinessUnion College KYMiddlesboroUSA

Personalised recommendations