Towards “Mapping” a Complex Language Ecology: The Case of Central Asia

Reference work entry


Interest in languages and language is increasing worldwide, particularly in connection with globalization and the international spread of English. This phenomenon raises questions not only about bilingualism, but also about multilingualism of society and plurilingualism of individuals and language policies, particularly in areas where decolonization and/or recent interdependence have brought them into question and made possible policies that presuppose different relations between the state, language(s), and communities found within a polity. Together with these changes has come a shift from reductionist approaches to language and society dealing with one language and one community at a time in favor of a more realist, pluralist, ecological approach that attempts to deal with all the languages within a given social and geographical space. This chapter presents a little known but exemplary case of a region where all of the above factors are at play: multilingual Central Asia, and the recently independent post-Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.


Central Asia Globalization Language ecology Linguistic variability Mapping ethnic diversity Multilingualism Plurilingualism Post-Soviet Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan 


Publisher’s note:

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


  1. ACTED. (2015, August 3). Promoting culture and learning foreign languages in Tajikistan.
  2. Adamz, Z. M. (2015). Territorializing the Koryo Saram: Negotiating South Korean perspectives on homeland and diaspora. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Kansas, Lawrence.Google Scholar
  3. Akçalı, P., & Engin-Demir, C. (2012). Turkey’s educational policies in Central Asia and Caucasia: Perceptions of policy makers and experts. International Journal of Educational Development, 32(1), 11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, B. A., & Silver, B. D. (1983). Estimating russification of ethnic identity among non-Russians in the USSR. Demography, 20, 461–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anthony, D. W. (2010). The horse, the wheel, and language: How Bronze-Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aref’ev, A. L. (2012). Русский язык на рубеже XX – XXI веков [The Russian language at the frontier of the 20th 21st centuries]. Moscow: Center for Sociological Research, Ministry of Education and Science.Google Scholar
  7. Arel, D. (2002). Interpreting ‘nationality’ and ‘language’ in the 2001 Ukrainian Census. Post-Soviet Affairs, 18, 213–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bahry, S. (2003). Involving staff in curriculum design: Revision of the teacher development curriculum for university English teachers and secondary school teacher trainers in Tajikistan. Paper presented at 6th international conference on language and development: Linguistic challenges to national development and international co-operation, British Council, Tashkent.Google Scholar
  9. Bahry, S. (2005). The potential of bilingual education in educational development of minority language children in Mountainous Badakhshan, Tajikistan. In H. Coleman, J. Gulyamova, & A. Thomas (Eds.), National development, education and language in Central Asia and beyond. Proceedings of 6th international language and development conference: Linguistic challenges to national development and international co-operation (pp. 46–63). Tashkent: British Council.Google Scholar
  10. Bahry, S. (2013). Language in Afghanistan’s education reform: Does it play a role in peace and reconciliation? In C. Benson & K. Kosonen (Eds.), Language issues in comparative education (pp. 59–77). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bahry, S. (2016a). Language ecology: Understanding Central Asian multilingualism. In E. S. Ahn & J. Smagulova (Eds.), Language change in Central Asia (pp. 11–32). Boston: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  12. Bahry, S. (2016b). Societal multilingualism and personal plurilingualism in Pamir Tajikistan’s complex language ecology. In E. S. Ahn & J. Smagulova (Eds.), Language change in Central Asia (pp. 125–148). Boston: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  13. Bahry, S. (2018, forthcoming). Language, globalization and education in Central Asia. In S. Niyozov & I. Silova (Eds.), Globalization on the margins: Education and post-socialist transformations in Central Asia (2nd ed.) Charlotte: Information Age Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bahry, S., Niyozov, S., & Shamatov, D. (2008). Bilingual education in Central Asia. In J. Cummins & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education, Volume 5: Bilingual education (2nd ed., pp. 205–221). New York: Springer Science + Business Media LLC.Google Scholar
  15. Bahry, S., Karimova, Y., & Shamatov, D. (2015). Review of J. M. Landau & B. Kellner-Heinkele (2012), Language politics in contemporary Central Asia. London/New York: Tauris. Language Policy, 14(1), 95–97.Google Scholar
  16. Bahry, S., Niyozov, S., Shamatov, D., Ahn, E., & Smagulova, J. (2016). Bilingual education in Central Asia. In O. García & S. A. May (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education, Volume 5: Bilingual education (3rd ed., pp. 259–280). New York: Springer Science + Business Media.Google Scholar
  17. Beech, S. E. (2015). International student mobility: The role of social networks. Social & Cultural Geography, 16(3), 332–350. Scholar
  18. Beeman, W. O. (2010). Sociolinguistics in the Iranian world. In M. J. Ball (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of sociolinguistics around the world (pp. 139–148). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Bilaniuk, L., & Melnyk, S. (2008). A tense and shifting balance: Bilingualism and education in Ukraine. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11(3), 340–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blommaert, J. (2010). The sociolinguistics of globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Braudel, F. (1979/1992). Civilization and capitalism, 15th–18th century: The perspective of the world. Berkeley: University of California Press. Translated from Braudel, F. (1979). Civilisation matérielle et capitalisme (XVe-XVIIIe siècle), Le temps du monde. Paris: Librairie Armand Colin.Google Scholar
  22. Britain, D. (2013). Space, diffusion and mobility. In J. K. Chambers & N. Schilling-Estes (Eds.), The handbook of language variation and change (2nd ed., pp. 471–500). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  23. Brown, K. D. (2005). Estonian schoolscapes and the marginalization of regional identity in education. European Education, 37(3), 78–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Calvet, L.-J. (1999). Pour une écologie des langues du monde. Paris: Plon.Google Scholar
  25. Canagarajah, A. S. (2005). Reconstructing local knowledge, reconfiguring language studies. In A. S. Canagarajah (Ed.), Reclaiming the local in language policy and practice (pp. 3–24). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  26. Canagarajah, A. S. (2013). Translingual practices: Global Englishes and cosmopolitan relations. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cavalli-Sforza, L. (2000). Genes, peoples and languages. New York: North Point Press.Google Scholar
  28. Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2013). Towards a plurilingual approach in English language teaching: Softening the boundaries between languages. TESOL Quarterly, 47(3), 591–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. CERD. (2004). Office of the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights. Available at
  30. CERD. (2010). Office of the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights. Available at
  31. Chambers, J. K., & Trudgill, P. (1980). Dialectology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Clement, V. (2013). Central Asia’s Hizmet schools. In G. Barton, P. Weller, & I. Yilmaz (Eds.), The Muslim world and politics in transition (pp. 154–167). London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  33. Clifton, J. M. (Ed.). (2005). Studies in languages of Tajikistan. St. Petersburg: North Eurasia Group, SIL International.Google Scholar
  34. Coleman, H., Gulyamova, J., & Thomas, A. (Eds.) (2005). National development, education and language in Central Asia and beyond. In Proceedings of 6th international language and development conference: Linguistic challenges to national development and international co-operation, British Council, Tashkent.Google Scholar
  35. Confucius Institute. (n.d.). Confucius Institutes Website. Retrieved from
  36. Crisp, S. (2009). Census and sociology: Evaluating the language situation in Soviet Central Asia 1958–86. In S. Akiner (Ed.), Cultural change & continuity in Central Asia (2nd ed., pp. 84–123). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Culture France Kazakhstan. (n.d.). French Embassy Kazakhstan. Retrieved from
  38. Dave, B. (2004). A shrinking reach of the state? Language policy and implementation in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. In P. Jones Luong (Ed.), The transformation of Central Asia. States and societies from Soviet rule to independence (pp. 120–156). Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  39. de la Vaissière, É. (2005). Sogdian traders: A history. Boston/Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Desheriev, I. D. (1976). Razvitie natsional’no-russkogo dvuiazychiia [Development of national-Russian bilingualism]. Moscow: Nauka.Google Scholar
  41. Dias, D. A. (2010, August 25). Gravity and globalization. Paper presented at 25th annual congress of the European Economic Association, 23–26 August, Glasgow. Retrieved from
  42. Diener, A. C. (2008). Diasporic and transnational social practices in Central Asia. Geography Compass, 2(3), 956–978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Döbel, R. (2006). People in the driver’s seat of development? On the role of language in the tension between local and global discourses of development. Paper presented at the 20th international conference of the VAD, knowledge and the sciences in Africa, 24–27 July 2006, Frankfurt am Main.Google Scholar
  44. Dornis, C. (1997). Migration in the Russian Federation since the mid-1980s: Refugees, immigrants, and emigrants. In R. Münz & M. Weiner (Eds.), Migrants, refugees, and foreign policy: U. S. and German Policies toward countries of origin (pp. 77–116). Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  45. Dwyer, A. (2005). The Xinjiang conflict: Uyghur identity, language policy, and political discourse (policy studies). Washington, DC: East-West Center Washington.Google Scholar
  46. Evans, A., Manning, N., Osmani, Y., Tully, A., & Wilder, A. (2004). A guide to government in Afghanistan. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  47. Fairclough, N. (2007). Language and globalization. London/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fairclough, N. (2009). Language and globalization. Semiotica, 173, 317–342.Google Scholar
  49. Fairclough, N. (2013). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language (2nd ed.). London/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ferrando, O. (2008). Manipulating the census: Ethnic minorities in the nationalizing states of Central Asia. Nationalities Papers, 36(3), 489–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fierman, W. (1991). Language planning and national development: The Uzbek experience. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fierman, W. (1998). Language and identity in Kazakhstan: Formulations in policy documents 1987–1997. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 31(2), 171–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gil, J. (2008). The promotion of Chinese language learning and China’s soft power. Asian Social Science, 4(10), 116–122.Google Scholar
  54. Gil, J. (2015). China’s cultural projection: A discussion of the Confucius Institutes. China: An International Journal, 13(1), 200–226.Google Scholar
  55. Goethe Institute. (n.d.). Goethe Institute Website. Retrieved from
  56. Guboglo, M. N. (1984). Sovremennye etnoiazykovye protsessy v SSSR: Osnovnye faktory i tendentsii razvitiia natsional’no-russkogo dvuiazychiia [Contemporary ethnolinguistic processes in the USSR: Basic factors and tendencies in the development of national-Russian bilingualism], Nauka, Moscow.Google Scholar
  57. Guboglo, M. N. (1986). Factors affecting bilingualism in national languages and Russian in a developed socialist society. In B. Spolsky (Ed.), Language and education in multilingual settings (pp. 23–31). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  58. Hägerstrand, T. (1967). Innovation diffusion as a spatial process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  59. Hansen, V. (2012). The silk road: A new history. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Hartig, F. (2012). Confucius Institutes and the rise of China. Journal of Chinese Political Science, 17(1), 53–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Haugen, E. (1972). The ecology of language. In A. S. Dil (Ed.), The ecology of language. Essays by Einar Haugen (pp. 324–329). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Held, D., McGrew, A. G., Goldblatt, D., & Perraton, J. (1999). Global transformations: Politics, economics and culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Heleniak, T. (1997). The changing nationality composition of the Central Asian and Transcaucasian states. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, 38(6), 357–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Heyer, E., Balaresque, P., Jobling, M. A., Quintana-Murci, L., Chaix, R., Segurel, L., Aldashev, A., & Hegay, T. (2009). Genetic diversity and the emergence of ethnic groups in Central Asia. BMC Genetics, 10, 49. Scholar
  65. Hiebert, F. T. (1994). Origins of the Bronze Age oasis civilization in Central Asia. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum Press.Google Scholar
  66. Hornberger, N. H. (2002). Multilingual language policies and the continua of biliteracy: An ecological approach. Language Policy, 1, 27–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hornberger, N. H., & Hult, F. M. (2008). Ecological language education policy. In B. Spolsky & F. M. Hult (Eds.), The handbook of educational linguistics (pp. 280–296). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. IIE. (n.d.) Institute of International Education website. Project Atlas: China.
  69. Kachru, B. B. (1992). World Englishes: Approaches, issues and resources. Language Teaching, 25(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kachru, B. B. (2006). Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the outer circle. In K. Bolton & B. B. Kachru (Eds.), World Englishes: Critical concepts in linguistics (Vol. 3, pp. 241–269). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Kazakhstan Committee on Statistics. (2014). 2014 жыл бacынa Қaзaқcтaн Pecпубликacы xaлқының жeкeлeгeн этнocтapы бoйыншa caны/Чиcлeннocть нaceлeния Pecпублики Кaзaxcтaн пo oтдeльным этнocaм нa нaчaлo 2014 гoдa [Population of the Republic of Kazakhstan by individual ethnic groups at the beginning of 2014]. Astana: Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan Committee on Statistics. Retrieved October 15, 2015, from
  72. Khalid, A. (1998). The politics of Muslim cultural reform: Jadidism in Central Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  73. Khasanov, B. K. (1987). Kazakhsko-Russkoe dvuiazychie [Kazakh-Russian bilingualism]. Alma Ata, Kazakh SSR: Nauka.Google Scholar
  74. Kirkwood, J. M. (2009). Russian language teaching policy in Soviet Central Asia 1958–86. In S. Akiner (Ed.), Cultural change & continuity in Central Asia (2nd ed., pp. 124–159). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  75. Korea Foundation. (2014). Korea Foundation 2014 Annual Report. Retrieved from
  76. Korea Foundation Newsletter. (2014, May). Workshop on Korean-language Instruction. Retrieved from
  77. Korean Cultural Center. (n.d.). Astana Korean Culture Center Website. Retrieved from
  78. Korean Herald (2014, October 21). Korea-Central Asia Youth Forum to run in Nov. Retrieved from
  79. Korth, B. (2005). Language attitudes towards Kyrgyz and Russian: Discourse, education and policy in post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan. Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  80. Kyrgyzstan National Statistics Committee. (2014). Кыpгызcтaн цифpaлapдa, 2014/Кыpгызcтaн в цифpax, 2014 гoдa [Kyrgyzstan in Figures, 2014]. Bishkek: National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic. Retrieved February 26, 2015, from
  81. Landau, J. M., & Kellner-Heinkele, B. (2001). Politics of language in the ex-Soviet Muslim States: Azerbayjan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. London: Hurst and Co.Google Scholar
  82. Landau, J. M., & Kellner-Heinkele, B. (2012). Language politics in contemporary Central Asia. New York: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  83. Larsen, M., & Beech, J. (2014). Spatial theorizing in comparative and international education research. Comparative Education Review, 58(2), 191–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mahajan, V., & Peterson, R. (1985). Models for innovation diffusion. Beverly Hills: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McCarthy, R. P. (2015, for The Diplomat, October 29). The Peace Corps’ declining role in Central Asia. The Diplomat. Retrieved from
  86. Milroy, L., & Llamas, C. (2013). Social networks. In J. K. Chambers & N. Schilling-Estes (Eds.), The handbook of language variation and change (2nd ed., pp. 423–441). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  87. Mir, R. (n.d.). Russian World Foundation Website. Retrieved from
  88. Mühlhäusler, P. (1997). Language ecology–contact without conflict. In M. Pütz (Ed.), Language choices: Conditions, constraints, and consequences (pp. 3–16). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mühlhäusler, P. (2002). Ecology of languages. In R. B. Kaplan (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 374–387). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Nagzibekova, M. (2008). Language and education policies in Tajikistan. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11(3–4), 501–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nelde, P. H. (2002). Language contact. In R. B. Kaplan (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 326–334). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Nettle, D., & Romaine, S. (2000). Vanishing voices: The extinction of the world’s languages. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Ngamsang, S., & Walsh, J. (2013). Confucius Institutes as instruments of soft power: Comparison with international rivals. Journal of Education and Vocational Research, 4(10), 302–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Niyozov, S., & Shamatov, D. (2006). Trading or teaching: Dilemmas of everyday life economy in Central Asia. Inner Asia, 8(2), 229–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Oh, C. J. (2012). Comparative analysis of the Ahiska (Meshketian) Turks and Koreans in post-Soviet Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan: The making of diaspora identity and culture. Millî Folklor, 24(94), 14–26.Google Scholar
  96. Oh, C. J. (2013). Soviet Korean (Koryo-In) in Central Asia and Korean religious activities in post-Soviet Central Asia. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi, 53(2), 211–224. Retrieved from Scholar
  97. Peace Corps. (2005, June 6). Peace Corps Suspends Program in Uzbekistan. Retrieved from
  98. Peace Corps. (n.d.). Peace Corps Website. Retrieved from
  99. Pennycook, A. (1999). Development, culture and language, ethical concerns in a postcolonial world; Plenary Presentation. In J. Shaw, D. Lubelska, & M. Noullet (Eds.), Partnership and interaction in development. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on language and development, Hanoi, October 13–15, 1999 (pp. 3–22). Bangkok: Asian Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  100. Perry, J. R. (1999). Comparative perspectives on language planning in Iran and Tajikistan. In Y. Suleiman (Ed.), Language and society in the Middle East and North Africa: Studies in variation and identity (pp. 154–174). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  101. Peyrouse, S. (2010). Berdymukhammedov’s Turkmenistan: A modest shift in domestic and social politics. The Journal of Central Asian Studies, 19, 77–96.Google Scholar
  102. Peyrouse, S. (2013). France and Central Asia. EUCAM National Policy Series, No. 9. Madrid: FRIDE. Retrieved from
  103. Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Phillipson, R. (2001). English for globalisation or for the world’s people? International Review of Education, 47(3–4), 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pieterse, J. N. (2006). Oriental globalization: Past and present. Theory Culture & Society, 23(2–3), 411–413. Scholar
  106. Rahman, T. (2006). Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan. In A. Saxena & L. Borin (Eds.), Lesser known languages of South Asia: Status and policies, case studies and applications of information technology (pp. 73–104). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  107. Ricento, T. (2010). Language policy and globalization. In N. Coupland (Ed.), The handbook of language and globalization (pp. 123–141). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Robertson, L. R. (1996). The ethnic composition of migration in the former Soviet Union. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, 37(2), 113–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  110. Ronge, V. (1997). German policies toward ethnic German minorities. In R. Münz & M. Weiner (Eds.), Migrants, refugees, and foreign policy: U. S. and German policies toward countries of origin (pp. 117–140). Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  111. Sadovskaya, Y. Y. (2012). The dynamics of contemporary Chinese expansion into Central Eurasia. In F. B. Chang & S. T. Rucker-Chang (Eds.), Chinese migrants in Russia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe (pp. 85–105). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  112. Sağın-Şimşek, Ç., & König, W. (2012). Receptive multilingualism and language understanding: Intelligibility of Azerbaijani to Turkish speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism, 16(3), 315–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schenkkan, N. (2011, November 8). Kyrgyzstan: Germans Fading Away on Central Asian Steppe. EurasiaNet.
  114. Schlyter, B. N. (2001). Language policies in present-day Central Asia. International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 3(2), 127–136.Google Scholar
  115. Schlyter, B. N. (2003). Sociolinguistic changes in transformed Central Asian societies. In J. Maurais & M. A. Morris (Eds.), Languages in a globalising world (pp. 157–187). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sen, T. (2012). The spread of Buddhism to China: A re-examination of the Buddhist interactions between ancient India and China. China Record, 48(1 & 2), 11–27. Scholar
  117. Shorish, M. M. (1984). Planning by decree: The Soviet language policy in Central Asia. Language Problems and Language Planning, 8(1), 35–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Silver, B. D. (1975). Methods of deriving data on bilingualism from the 1970 Soviet Census. Soviet Studies, 27, 574–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2000). Linguistic genocide in education – Or worldwide diversity and human rights? Mahwah/London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  120. Street, B. V. (2008). New literacies, new times: Developments in literacy studies. In B. V. Street & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education, Volume 2: Literacy (2nd ed., pp. 3–14). New York: Springer Science + Business Media LLC.Google Scholar
  121. Sultangalieva, G. S. (2012). The Russian Empire and the intermediary role of Tatars in Kazakhstan: The politics of cooperation and rejection. In T. Uyama (Ed.), Asiatic Russia: Imperial power in regional and international contexts (pp. 52–79). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  122. Tajikistan Statistics Agency. (2012). Бapӯйxaтгиpии aҳoлӣ вa фoнди мaнзили Ҷумҳуpии Toҷикиcтoн дap coли 2010/Пepeпиcь нaceлeния и жилищнoгo фoндa Pecпублики Taджикиcтaн 2010 гoдa [Population and housing census of the Republic of Tajikistan in 2010]. Dushanbe: Agency for Statistics under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan. Retrieved November 2, 2014, from
  123. Tehran Times. (2015, December 23). Tajik hospital launches Persian alphabet course for doctors and nurses. Tehran Times. Retrieved from
  124. UNESCO. (n.d.). UNESCO Institute of Statistics Website. Global flow of tertiary students. Retrieved from
  125. US Embassy, Uzbekistan. (2003, October, 31). Peace Corps swears-in its sixteenth group of volunteers for service in Uzbekistan. Retrieved from
  126. UZ Daily. (2014, November 11). French alliance Tashkent to start its work in 2015. Retrieved from
  127. Voegelin, C. F., & Voegelin, F. M. (1964). Languages of the world: African fascicle one. Anthropological Linguistics, 6(6), 1–149.Google Scholar
  128. Walter, M. N. (2006). Sogdians and Buddhism. Sino-Platonic Papers, No. 174.Google Scholar
  129. Wright, S. (Ed.). (2000). Language policy and language issues in the successor states of the former USSR. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  130. Wurm, S. A., Mühlhäusler, P., & Tryon, D. T. (Eds.) (1996). Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, Vol. 1. Maps. Vol. 2: Texts. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
  131. Yang, R. (2010). Soft power and higher education: An examination of China’s Confucius Institutes. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 8(2), 235–245. Scholar
  132. Yemelianova, G. M. (1999). Volga Tatars, Russians and the Russian state at the turn of the nineteenth century: Relationships and perceptions. The Slavonic and East European Review, 77(3), 448–484.Google Scholar
  133. Yunus Emre. (n.d.). Yunus Emre Enstitüsü Website. Retrieved from
  134. Zhang, F., Su, B., Zhang, Y., & Jin, L. (2007). Genetic studies of human diversity in East Asia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 362(1482), 987–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Comparative, International and Development Education Centre, Ontario Institute for Studies in EducationUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations