Ophthalmic Infections in Transplant

Living reference work entry


Ocular infections are rare but serious complications of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here we summarize the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of the most common causes of ocular infection among transplant recipients. Infection must be considered as a part of the differential diagnosis of ocular pathology after transplant, and any ocular symptoms in this patient population should prompt evaluation by an ophthalmologist. Herpesviruses, opportunistic fungi, bacteria, and toxoplasmosis are common causes of ocular infection among transplant recipients. An understanding of ocular anatomy, prompt evaluation by trained specialists, and timely treatment are essential for limiting morbidity and mortality from these infections. While different frameworks may be useful for conceptualizing this class of infections, such as dividing infections by anatomic site, causative organism, or chronicity of symptoms, we subdivide this review chapter by causative organism for two reasons. First, the causative organism dictates diagnosis and treatment. Second, infections in immunocompromised hosts are frequently not restricted to a single anatomic subdivision within the eye. We provide easily referenced tables and, where possible, offer guiding principles for diagnosis and management. In this population, infection is frequently an ocular manifestation of a systemic process, so this group of diseases requires cross-disciplinary collaboration between ophthalmologists and internal medicine specialists.


Transplantation Infection Endophthalmitis Retinitis Keratitis 



The authors gratefully acknowledge Ramy Elshaboury, PharmD, for guidance with pharmacotherapy administration and dosing.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Infectious DiseaseMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyMassachusetts Eye and Ear InfirmaryBostonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Camille Nelson Kotton
    • 1
  1. 1.Infectious Diseases DivisionHarvard University Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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