Modelling of Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics

  • Mohcine Chraibi
  • Antoine Tordeux
  • Andreas SchadschneiderEmail author
  • Armin Seyfried
Reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science Series book series (ECSSS)



A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot. In this article, other characterizations are used, depending on the context, e.g., agent or particle.


A large group of pedestrians who have gathered together. Depending on the perspective, more specific definitions exist.

Microscopic models

Microscopic models represent each pedestrian separately with individual properties (e.g., walking velocity or route choice behavior) and his/her interactions with other individuals. Typical models that belong to this class are cellular automata and the force-based models.

Macroscopic models

Macroscopic models do not distinguish individuals. The description is based on aggregate quantities, e.g., appropriate densities. Typical models belonging to this class are fluid-dynamic approaches.

Acceleration-based models

Acceleration-based models are microscopic models defined by a system of second-order ordinary differential equations. The resulting acceleration is integrated twice to...


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohcine Chraibi
    • 1
  • Antoine Tordeux
    • 2
  • Andreas Schadschneider
    • 3
    Email author
  • Armin Seyfried
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute for Advanced SimulationForschungszentrum Jülich GmbHJülichGermany
  2. 2.School of Mechanical Engineering and Safety EngineeringUniversity of WuppertalWuppertalGermany
  3. 3.Institut für Theoretische PhysikUniversität zu KölnKölnGermany
  4. 4.School of Architecture and Civil EngineeringUniversity of WuppertalWuppertalGermany

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