# Cellular Automaton Models in the Framework of Three-Phase Traffic Theory

• Junfang Tian
• Chenqiang Zhu
• Rui Jiang
Reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science Series book series (ECSSS)

## Glossary

CA models

Cellular automata (CA) models are a class of microscopic traffic flow models. In the CA models, the time and space are discrete, and the evolution is described by update rules.

First-order phase transition

In three-phase traffic theory, the F → S and S → J transitions are claimed to be first-order phase transition, in which the flow rate abrupt decreases.

Fundamental diagram

Fundamental diagram describes the relationship between flow rate and density. In the empirical data, the flow rate and density are usually collected by loop detector and averaged over 1 min. In the simulation on a circular road, usually the global density vs. averaged flow rate is plotted.

Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory

In Kerner’s three-phase theory, the congested flow has been further classified into synchronized flow (S) and wide moving jam (J). Therefore, there are three phases in traffic flow, i.e., the free flow (F), synchronized flow, and wide moving jam. The usually observed traffic...

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