Freeway Traffic Management and Control

  • Andreas HegyiEmail author
  • Tom Bellemans
  • Bart De Schutter
Reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science Series book series (ECSSS)


Feedback control

In Fig. 1 the feedback control structure is shown (Åström and Wittenmark 1997). In contrast to the feedforward control structure, here the behavior of the outputs is coupled back to the controller (hence the name feedback). This structure is also often referred to as “closed-loop” control.

The main advantages of a feedback controller over a feedforward controller are that (1) it may have a quicker response (resulting in better performance), (2) it may correct undesired offsets in the output, (3) it may suppress unmeasurable disturbances that are observable through the output only, and (4) it may stabilize an unstable system.

Feedforward control

The block diagram of a feedforward control structure is shown in Fig. 2 (Åström and Wittenmark 1997). The behavior of process P can be influenced by the control inputs. As a result the outputs (measurements or observations) show a given behavior. The controller Cdetermines the control inputs in order to reach a given...



Advanced driver assistance systems


Automated highway system


Intelligent vehicle/highway system


Model predictive control




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Books and Reviews

  1. We refer the interested reader to the following references in the various fields that have been discussed in this entry:Google Scholar
  2. Control: General introduction (Åström and Wittenmark 1997), optimal control (Lewis 1992), model predictive control (Camacho and Bordons 1995; Maciejowski 2002), nonlinear control (Slotine and Li 1991)Google Scholar
  3. Traffic flow modeling: General overviews (Hoogendoorn and Bovy 2000, 2001), cell transmission model (Daganzo 1994), Kerner’s three-phase theory (Kerner 2004), microscopic simulation models (Algers et al. 2000), cellular automata (Maerivoet and De Moor 2005)Google Scholar
  4. Ramp metering: Overviews of ramp metering strategies (Carvell et al. 1997; Papageorgiou and Kotsialos 2000), field test and simulation studies (Hasan et al. 2002)Google Scholar
  5. Speed limit systems: Overviews of practical speed limit systems (Sisiopiku 2001; Wilkie 1997)Google Scholar
  6. Intelligent vehicles: Overview (Bishop 2005)Google Scholar
  7. Sensor technologies: Overviews (Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation 1995a, b; Klein et al. 1997, 2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Hegyi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tom Bellemans
    • 2
  • Bart De Schutter
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Transport and PlanningDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Hasselt UniversityDiepenbeekBelgium
  3. 3.Delft Center for Systems and ControlDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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