Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Volcanoes, Observations, and Impact

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2493-6_731-3



Large crater formed by collapse of an overlying structure when an eruption empties a magma reservoir.


Nonexplosive eruption of fluid molten material that later solidifies.


A volcanic vent that emits hot gas.


Sound waves at frequencies below the range of human hearing (< 20 Hz).


A pattern of satellite radar wave “fringes” formed by interference, analogous to the colorful pattern from light reflected by a thin film of oil or gas, that can indicate ground deformation.


Heavy flow of mud, water, and debris triggered by interactions of hot material with ice or water or by heavy rainfall on recently erupted unconsolidated material.


Explosion caused by heating and expansion of groundwater.


Composed of rock fragments ejected explosively from an erupting volcano.


Continuous vibration of the ground related to magma movement.


Dissolved gases contained in magma.

Definition of the Subject



Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Eruption Forecasting Volcano Monitoring Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeoscienceUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Volcano Disaster Assistance Program, Volcano Science CenterUS Geological SurveyAnchorageUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Mervin Fingas
    • 1
  1. 1.Spill ScienceEdmontonCanada