Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Recycling Collection and Material Separation

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2493-6_115-3


Source reduction

Source reduction is the reduction of materials coming into the system. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines source reduction as “activities designed to reduce the volume or toxicity of waste generated, including the design and manufacture of products with minimum toxic content, minimum volume of material, and/or a longer useful life.” The two interesting components of this definition are volume and toxicity. This means that an organization does not have to solely focus on reducing volumes for source reduction initiatives but could focus efforts on reducing the negative impacts on the environment of those same volumes. This may mean a reduction of pallets entering a building or of flash being generated from a mold.


Reuse is the actual reuse of a material in its present form. Some examples are printing draft copies on the backside of previously used paper, using incoming pallets as outgoing pallets, or using incoming boxes as collection...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    USEPA (2008) Municipal solid waste in the United States: 2007 facts and figures, EPA-350-R-08-101, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stessel R (1996) Recycling and resource recovery engineering: principles of waste processing. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    USEPA (1988) Waste minimization assessment manual. Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Petek J, Glavic P (1996) An integral approach to waste minimization in process industries. Resour Conserv Recycl 17:169–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Recycling Collection Systems, State of Connecticut, Department of Energy and Environmental Protection. http://www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/. Accessed 15 Nov 2010
  6. 6.
    Granger T (2007) Types of curbside recycling programs. Earth 911. http://earth911.com/recycling/curbside-recycling/. Accessed 31 Dec 2007
  7. 7.
    Curbside recycling. Earth 911. http://earth911.com/recycling/curbside-recycling/. Accessed 20 Nov 2010
  8. 8.
    Wastes – resource conservation – conservation tools – pay-as-you-throw. The U.S. EPA. http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/tools/payt/. Accessed 20 Nov 2010
  9. 9.
    The U.S. EPA (2010) Wastes – resource conservation – common wastes & materials – paper recycling. http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/materials/paper/basics/grade.htm. Accessed 20 Nov 2010
  10. 10.
    The recycling process after collection what happens to materials when you recycle, The University of Oregon. http://pages.uoregon.edu/recycle/after_collection.html. Accessed 20 Nov 2010
  11. 11.
    Franchetti M (2009) Solid waste analysis and minimization. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Franchetti M (2009) Case study: determination of the economic and operational feasibility of a material recovery facility for municipal recycling. Resour Conserv Recycl 52:535–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    The U.S. EPA (1994) A review of industrial waste exchanges. The U.S. EPA, solid waste and emergency response (5305), EPA-530-K-94-003Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    The U.S. EPA (2010) Recycling market development. www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/recycle/jtr/comm/exchange.htm. Accessed 20 Nov 2010
  15. 15.
    The U.S. EPA (2010) Waste and material exchange. www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/recycle/jtr/comm/exchange.htm. Accessed 20 Nov 2010
  16. 16.
    The National Material Exchange Network (2010) Waste exchange directory. http://www.cftech.com/BrainBank/MANUFACTURING/WasteExchgs.html. Accessed 25 Nov 2010
  17. 17.
    The Ohio Material Exchange (2010) The Ohio material exchange: background. http://www.myomex.com/about.aspx. Accessed 25 Nov 2010
  18. 18.
    The Massachusetts Material Exchange (2010) Materials exchange: the benefits of recycling. http://www.materialsexchange.org/. Posted 13 Sept 2010

Books and Reviews

  1. Avsar E, Demirer G (2008) Cleaner production opportunity assessment study in SEKA Balikesir pulp and paper mill. J Clean Prod 16(4):422–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck RW (2004) Lycoming county material recovery facility evaluation. Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Final reportGoogle Scholar
  3. Berenyi EB (2002) 2001–2002 materials recycling and processing in the United States, 4th edn. Governmental Advisory Associates, WestportGoogle Scholar
  4. Birgisdottir H (2006) Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE. Waste Manage Res 24:3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang N, Wang SF (1995) The development of material recovery facilities in the United States: status and cost structure analysis. Resour Conserv Recycl 13:115–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Covey SK (2000) Building partnerships – the Ohio materials exchange. Resour Conserv Recycl 28(3):265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Davila E, Chang N (2005) Sustainable pattern analysis of a publicly owned material recovery facility in a fast-growing urban setting under uncertainty. J Environ Manag 75:337–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Alessi M, The dirty MRF. http://www.pacificresearch.org/pub/sab/. Accessed 20 Nov 2010
  9. Diaz LF, Savage GM, Eggerth LL, Golueke CG (1993) Composting and recycling municipal solid waste. Lewis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  10. Dowie W, McCartney D, Tamm J (1998) A case study of an institutional solid waste environmental management system. J Environ Manag 53:137–146. http://www.enviro/05_enviroindex/25_toxics.html. Accessed 20 Nov 2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. EPA (1988) Waste minimization opportunity assessment manual. US Environmental Protection Agency, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  12. Franchetti M (2008) One company’s trash is another company’s treasure: with the rising volumes of recyclable materials entering the waste stream, waste commodity exchanges have started receiving increased interest from companies looking trim their bottom line. Resour Recycl N Am Recycl Compost J 28:40–42Google Scholar
  13. Franklin and Associates for the EPA (2000) Municipal solid waste generation, recycling, and disposal in the United States: 2000 facts and figures, June 2002Google Scholar
  14. Haman W (2000) Total assessment audits (TAA) in Iowa. Resour Conserv Recycl 28:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harris E (2000) Cornell waste management institute update June 2000, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  16. Lui H (2003) Waste minimization at a nitrocellulose manufacturing facility. J Environ Studies 60:353–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McCartney D (2003) Auditing non-hazardous wastes from golf course operations: moving from a waste to a sustainability framework. Resour Conserv Recycl 37:283–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mixed waste processing. (1997) NC division of pollution prevention and environmental assistance. http://www.p2pays.org/ref/01/00028.htm. Accessed Feb 2006
  19. Modern marvels: history of garbage (2004) Video produced by the history channelGoogle Scholar
  20. Ohio EPA (1997) Governor’s pollution prevention award recipient: mahoning county's industrial waste minimization project. Fact sheet #41Google Scholar
  21. PEER Consultants and CalRecovery (1993) Material recovery facility design manual. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  22. Petrell R, Duff S, Felder M (2001) A solid waste audit and directions at the University of British Columbia, Canada. Waste Manage Res 19:354–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rathje W, Murphy C (2001) Rubbish!: the archeology of garbage. University of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  24. Rhyner CR, Schwartz LJ, Wenger RB, Kohrell MG (1995) Waste management and resource recovery. Lewis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  25. Ryding S (1994) International experiences of environmentally sound product development based on life cycle assessment. Swedish waste research council, ARF report 36, Stockholm, May 1994Google Scholar
  26. Schianetz K, Kavanagh L, Lockington D (2007) Concepts and tools for comprehensive sustainability assessments for tourism destinations: a comprehensive review. J Sustain Tour 15:369–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shimberg SJ (1985) The hazardous and solid waste amendments of 1984: what congress did … and why. Environ Forum 1985:8–19Google Scholar
  28. State Solid Waste Management Plan(2001). Ohio EPA-division of solid and infectious waste management, ColumbusGoogle Scholar
  29. Strong DL (1997) Recycling in America, 2nd edn. ABC-CLIO, Santa BarbaraGoogle Scholar
  30. The Environmental Industries Associations Garbage Then and Now (2003) Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  31. The League of Women Voters (U.S.) Garbage Primer (1993) Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  32. Tompkins JA, White JA, Bozer YA, Tanchoco JMA (2003) Facilities planning. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  33. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (2001) Industrial assessment center brochure 2001, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  34. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1990) The nation’s hazardous waste management program at a crossroads. Report no. EPA/530-SW-90-069. EPA, Washington, p 114Google Scholar
  35. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1998) Household hazardous waste management: a manual for one-day community collection programs, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  36. United States Congress of Technology Assessment (US Congress OTA) (1992) Green products by design: choices for a cleaner environment. OTA-E-541. U.S. government printing office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  37. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2003) Municipal solid waste generation, recycling, and disposal in the United States: facts and figures for 2003. United States environmental protection agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  38. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2006) Municipal solid waste – basic facts. http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/facts.htm. Accessed Feb 2006
  39. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2006) Decision maker’s guide to solid waste management, volume II. http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/dmg2.htm, 1995. Accessed Feb 2006
  40. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2006) Full cost accounting for municipal solid waste management. http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/fullcost/docs/fca-hanb.pdf. Accessed Mar 2006
  41. US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (2001) Industrial assessment center brochure, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  42. US Environmental Protection Agency (2006) Full cost accounting for municipal solid waste management. US EPA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang Q, Dong L, Xi B, Zhou B, Huang Q (2006) The current situation of solid waste management in China. J Mater Cycles Waste Manage 8:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering DepartmentUniversity of ToledoToledoUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • A. C. (Thanos) Bourtsalas
    • 1
  • Nickolas J. Themelis
    • 2
  1. 1.Earth Engineering Center, Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Earth and Environmental EngineeringColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA