Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu

Replication Based on Paxos

  • Fernando Pedone
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_80764

Synonyms

Consensus; State machine replication

Definition

Paxos is a consensus protocol designed for state machine replication in asynchronous environments subject to crash failures. State machine replication is a technique to increase the availability of a service by replicating the service in multiple replicas and regulating how client commands are propagated to and executed by the replicas: every non-faulty replica must receive and execute every command in the same order. State machine replication provides strong consistency, that is, from the perspective of the clients, the behavior of a service implemented by replicated servers is no different than the behavior of the service when implemented by a single server. Paxos ensures that commands submitted by the clients are delivered to the replicas in the same total order, despite the crash of some replicas.

Historical Background

State machine replication, sometimes called active replication, was introduced in [6] for environments in...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Burrows M. The chubby lock service for loosely-coupled distributed systems. In: Proceedings of the 7th USENIX Symposium on Operating System Design and Implementation; 2006. p. 335–50.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Calder B, Wang J, Ogus A, Nilakantan N, Skjolsvold A, McKelvie S, Xu Y, Srivastav S, Wu J, Simitci H, Haridas J, Uddaraju C, Khatri H, Edwards A, Bedekar V, Mainali S, Abbasi R, Agarwal A, Fahim ul Haq M, Ikram ul Haq M, Bhardwaj D, Dayanand S, Adusumilli A, McNett M, Sankaran S, Manivannan K, Rigas L. Windows azure storage: a highly available cloud storage service with strong consistency. In: Proceedings of the 23rd ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles; 2011. p. 143–57.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dang HT, Sciascia D, Canini M, Pedone F, Soulé R. Netpaxos: consensus at network speed. In: Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGCOMM Symposium on Software Defined Networking Research; 2015.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fischer MJ, Lynch NA, Paterson MS. Impossibility of distributed consensus with one faulty processor. J ACM. 1985;32(2):374–82.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gafni E, Lamport L. Disk Paxos. Distrib Comput. 2003;16(1):1–20.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lamport L. Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system. Commun ACM. 1978;21(7):558–65.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lamport L. The part-time parliament. Technical report 49, DEC Systems Research Center; 1989.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lamport L. The part-time parliament. ACM Trans Comput Syst. 1998;16(2):133–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lamport L. Generalized consensus and Paxos. Technical report MSR-TR-2005-33, Microsoft Research (MSR); 2005.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lamport L. Fast Paxos. Distrib Comput. 2006;19(2):79–103.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lamport L. Lower bounds for asynchronous consensus. Distrib Comput. 2006;19(2):104–25.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lamport L, Massa M. Cheap Paxos. In: Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks; 2004.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    MacCormick J, Murphy N, Najork M, Thekkath CA, Zhou L. Boxwood: abstractions as the foundation for storage infrastructure. In: Proceedings of the 6th USENIX Symposium on Operating System Design and Implementation; 2004.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mao Y, Junqueira FP, Marzullo K. Mencius: Building efficient replicated state machine for WANs. In: Proceedings of the 8th USENIX Symposium on Operating System Design and Implementation; 2008. p. 369–84.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marandi PJ, Primi M, Pedone F. Multi-ring Paxos. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks; 2012.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marandi PJ, Primi M, Schiper N, Pedone F. Ring Paxos: a high-throughput atomic broadcast protocol. In: Proceedings of IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks; 2010. p. 527–36.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moraru I, Andersen DG, Kaminsky M. There is more consensus in egalitarian parliaments. In: Proceedings of the 24th ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles; 2013.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ports DRK, Li J, Liu V, Sharma NK, Krishnamurthy A. Designing distributed systems using approximate synchrony in data center networks. In: Proceedings of the 12th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design & Implementation; 2015.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rao J, Shekita EJ, Tata S. Using Paxos to build a scalable, consistent, and highly available datastore. Proc. VLDB Endow 2011;4(4):243–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schneider FB. Implementing fault-tolerant services using the state machine approach: a tutorial. ACM Comput Surv 1990;22(4):299–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shute J, Vingralek R, Samwel B, Handy B, Whipkey C, Rollins E, Oancea M, Littlefield K, Menestrina D, Ellner S, Cieslewicz J, Rae I, Stancescu T, Apte H. F1: a distributed SQL database that scales. Proc. VLDB Endow. 2013;6(11):1068–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Università della Svizzera Italiana (USI)LuganoSwitzerland