Data Manipulation Language (DML)
A data manipulation language allows users to access and retrieve database contents in both interactive and embedded (in a host programming language) modes. DML includes constructs that allow retrieval and manipulation of database content. The more common and popular term used for DML is the “query language.” The ISO standard SQL language is the most popular DML for relational databases. DML can be declarative, specifying the properties of the data that is to be retrieved from the database or procedural where the use specifies how to access the data. Modern DBMSs are expected to have declarative DMLs (such as SQL), which allows the DBMS to convert them into a relational algebra expression before optimizing their execution. There are other data manipulation languages for specific DBMSs – e.g., SPARQL for RDF data, OQL for object database systems, and XQuery for XML DBMSs.
The definition of a DML dates back to the origins of...