Two-phase commit (2PC) is a synchronization protocol that solves the atomic commitment problem, a special case of the Byzantine Generals problem. Essentially, it is used in distributed database systems to ensure global atomicity of transactions in spite of site and communication failures, assuming that a failure will be, eventually, repaired and each site guarantees atomicity of transactions at its local level.
2PC is the simplest and most studied atomic commit protocol (ACP). It was first published in  and . Since then, the protocol has received much attention from the academia and industry due to its importance in distributed database systems, and the research has resulted in numerous variants and optimizations for different distributed database environments. These environments include main memory databases (e.g., ), real-time databases (e.g., ), mobile database systems (e.g., ), heterogeneous database systems (e.g., ), Web...
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