Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu

Clinical Data and Information Models

  • Chintan PatelEmail author
  • Chunhua Weng
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_55


A formal representation of the clinical data using entities, types, relationships and attributes. The abstraction of clinical data into an information model enables reusability and extensibility of the database to satisfy different application needs and accommodate changes in the underlying data.

Key Points

The clinical domain is a data rich environment with multitude of different data entities ranging from several thousands of laboratory tests, procedures or medications that change often with new ones getting added almost every day. Furthermore these data are generated from different information systems or devices (often from different vendors) in the hospital. Integrating such wide variety of data streams into a common information model is a challenging task.

Most healthcare databases use generic information models [ 3, 4] such as event-component models with an Entity-Attribute-Value [ 5] (EAV) schema to represent the data (see Fig. 1). The advantage of using a generic...
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Recommended Reading

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    Eggebraaten TJ, Tenner JW, Dubbels JC. A health-care data model based on the HL7 reference information model. IBM Syst J. 2007;46(1):518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    HL7 Reference Information Model. 2008.http://www.hl7.org/. Accessed 18 Apr 2008.
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    Huff S, Rocha R, Bray B, Warner H, Haug P. An event model of medical information representation. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 1995;2(2):116–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Johnson S. Generic data modeling for clinical repositories. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 1996;3(5):328–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Nadkarni P, Marenco L, Chen R, Skoufos E, Shepherd G, Miller P. Organization of heterogeneous scientific data using the EAV/CR representation. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 1999;6(6):478571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    OpenEHR. Reference information model. 2008.http://www.openehr.org/. Accessed 18 Apr 2008.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vipul Kashyap
    • 1
  1. 1.Director, Clinical ProgramsCIGNA HealthcareBloomfieldUSA