Geographic information services; LBS; Location services; Mobile map services
Location-based services (LBS) provide targeted information to individuals based on their geographic location in real or near-real time, typically through wireless communication networks and clients such as portable computers, personal digital assistants, mobile phones, and in-vehicle navigation systems.
LBS have emerged from the convergence of three major technological trends: (i) geospatial technologies, including location-aware technologies, geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial databases; (ii) the Internet, and; (iii) information and communication technologies, in particular, personal computing devices and mobile communication. Some of these technologies date to the late 1960s and early 1970s. For example, the first GIS was developed in the mid-1960s, while the global positioning system, the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), mobile telephony...
- 2.Grejner-Brzezinska D. Positioning and tracking approaches and technologies. In: Karimi HA, Hammad A, editors. Telegeoinformatics: location-based computing and services. Boca-Raton: CRC Press; 2004.p. 69–110.Google Scholar
- 3.Jensen C. Database aspects of location-based services. In: Schiller J, Voisard A, editors. Location-based services. New York: Morgan Kaufmann; 2002. p. 115–45.Google Scholar
- 7.Lopez XR. Location-based services. In: Karimi HA, Hammad A, editors. Telegeoinformatics: location-based computing and services. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2004. p. 171–88.Google Scholar
- 8.Shiode N, Li C, Batty M, Longley P, Maguire D. The impact and penetration of location-based services. In: Karimi HA, Hammad A, editors. Telegeoinformatics: location-based computing and services. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2004. p. 349–66.Google Scholar