Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu


  • Hans HinterbergerEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_1373


List; Matrix


A data structure to organize the tuples of a relation: {<valueix, valueiy,…>, <valuejx, valuejy,…>, …} in a structured way.

An arrangement of numbers, words, symbols, or items of any kind, in columns and rows.

One-way table. The values of one or more variables (sets of data) are displayed either horizontally or vertically as a list. Each row or each column represents one data item.

Two-way table. Also known as a contingency table or cross tabulation (cross tab). The rows are labeled with values of one of two variables and the columns with values of the other. The cell at each row and column intersection displays the value of a characteristic of the data that is shared by the two variables when they have the value displayed in the row and column headings.

Multi-way table. The general idea of cross tabulation extended to more than two variables. The rows or columns or both are grouped by values of additional variables.

Key Points

In database terminology a...

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Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Bertin J. Graphics and graphic information-processing. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter; 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Card SK, MacKinlay JD, Shneiderman B. Readings in information visualization: using vision to think. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann; 1999.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ehrenberg ASC. A primer in data reduction. Chichester: Wiley; 1982.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Harris RL. Information graphics: a comprehensive illustrated reference. New York: Oxford University Press; 1999.zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Hans Hinterberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Inst. of Scientific ComputingETH ZürichZurichSwitzerland