Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu


  • Peter M. D. GrayEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_1110


P/FDM [57] integrated a functional data model with the logic programming language Prolog for general-purpose computation. The data model can be seen as an Entity-Relationship diagram with sub-types, much like a UML Class Diagram. The idea was for the user to be able to define a computation over objects in the diagram, instead of just using it as a schema design aid. Later versions of P/FDM included a graphic interface [2, 4] to build queries in DAPLEX syntax by clicking on the diagram and filling in values from menus.

P/FDM was subsequently extended with constraints [3] and with alternative back-ends to remote databases [6], in the spirit of the original MULTIBASE system.

P/FDM is a vehicle to test a system designed on the principle of Data Independence, whereby Functions represent computations that are expressed in a way that is completely independent of data storage (arrays, lists of objects, indexed files etc.). Functions can be sent across the internet and applied to...

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Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Embury SM. User manual for P/FDM V.9.1. Technical report, Department of Computing Science, University of Aberdeen; 1995.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gil I, Gray PMD, Kemp GJL. A Visual interface and navigator for the P/FDM object database. In: Proceedings of the User Interfaces to Data Intensive Systems; 1999. p. 54–63.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gray PMD, Embury SM, Hui KY, Kemp GJL. The evolving role of constraints in the functional data model. J Intell Inf Syst. 1999;12(2–3):113–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gray PMD, Kemp GJL. Capturing quantified constraints in FOL, through interaction with a relationship graph. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management: Ontologies and the Semantic Web; 2006. p. 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gray PMD, Moffat DS, Paton NW. A Prolog interface to a functional data model database. In: Advances in Database Technology, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Extending Database Technology; 1988. p. 34–48.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kemp GJL, Dupont J, Gray PMD. Using the functional data model to integrate distributed biological data sources. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Scientific and Statistical Database Management; 1996. p. 176–85.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Paton NW, Gray PMD. Identification of database objects by key. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Object-Oriented Database Systems; 1988. p. 280–5.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Paton NW, Gray PMD. Optimising and executing daplex queries using prolog. Comput J. 1990;33(6):547–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of AberdeenAberdeenUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Tore Risch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information TechnologyUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden