Reference work entry
Digital image; Graphics; Multimedia; Photograph; Picture; Synthetic image
Image comes from Imago in Latin and designates funeral masks. Philosophically, an image represents the static and eternal double of a volatile or ephemeral reality. More commonly, it is a two-dimensional artifact that either records the visual appearance of physical objects, like photographs, or provides a visual representation of concepts or artificial data, like graphics or synthetic images. Digital images were born in the early 1920s, as a representation of a two-dimensional image using ones and zeros (binary) obtained by digital cameras, scanners or dedicated materials and softwares. They exist in different forms, as illustrated in Fig. 1. Nowadays, digital images are everywhere. They are involved in a large number of leading applications and cover various domains from medicine to video games, including architecture or robotics.
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