Actions and events occurring in the context of warfare and armed conflict that result in economic losses, physical, and/or psychological trauma. These actions and events may include, and are not limiting to, injury, loss of life, property theft and destruction, displacement, sexual assault, forced displacement or detention, torture, and participating in or witnessing traumatic actions committed against others. The perpetrators and/or recipients of such actions need not be formal institutional actors. Violence may be caused by an actor’s willful intent and influence on others, or through negligence and failure to act to prevent trauma from taking place. Perpetrators of violence may also be adversely affected by actions they undertake or witness against others.
War and other forms of conflict-related violence have taken a profound toll on many people throughout the world. Between 1945 and 1999, Fearon and Laitin (2003) estimate that over 3 million people died in 25...
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