Anxiety and Heart Disease
Anxiety is an emotional response to a situation, which has both psychological and physiological consequences. Anxiety may be a normal response to daily life situations. However, a heightened or an inappropriate level of anxiety may lead to several deleterious consequences to overall health. There is mounting research about the role of anxiety in the pathophysiology of heart disease.
In the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the relationship between anxiety and heart disease. As reviewed by Rozanski et al. (1999) prior to 1999, there were a limited number of prospective studies demonstrating a relationship between anxiety and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in healthy populations and in patients with prevalent CVD.
After these initial studies, additional prospective studies examining the relationship between anxiety and CVD outcomes in participants without prior CVD history have been...
References and Further Reading
- Shen, B. J., Avivi, Y. E., Todaro, J. F., Spiro, A., III, Laurenceau, J.-P., Ward, K. D., et al. (2008). Anxiety characteristics independently and prospectively predict myocardial infarction in men: The unique contribution of anxiety among psychologic factors. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 51, 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Strik, J. M. H., Denollet, J. K. L., Lousberg, R., & Honig, A. (2003). Comparing symptoms of depression and anxiety as predictors of cardiac events and increased health care consumption after myocardial infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 42(10), 1801–1807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar