Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

Living Edition
| Editors: Marc Gellman

Anxiety and Heart Disease

  • Manjunath HarlapurEmail author
  • Daichi Shimbo
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6439-6_1248-2



Anxiety is an emotional response to a situation, which has both psychological and physiological consequences. Anxiety may be a normal response to daily life situations. However, a heightened or an inappropriate level of anxiety may lead to several deleterious consequences to overall health. There is mounting research about the role of anxiety in the pathophysiology of heart disease.


In the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the relationship between anxiety and heart disease. As reviewed by Rozanski et al. (1999) prior to 1999, there were a limited number of prospective studies demonstrating a relationship between anxiety and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in healthy populations and in patients with prevalent CVD.

After these initial studies, additional prospective studies examining the relationship between anxiety and CVD outcomes in participants without prior CVD history have been...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Further Reading

  1. Albert, C. M., Chae, C. U., Rexrode, K. M., Manson, J. E., & Kawachi, I. (2005). Phobic anxiety and risk of coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death among women. Circulation, 11, 480–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Doering, L. V., Moser, D. K., Riegel, B., McKinley, S., Davidson, P., Baker, H., Meischke, H., & Dracup, K. (2010). Persistent comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety predict mortality in heart disease. International Journal of Cardiology, 145, 188–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Huffman, J. C., Smith, F. A., Blais, M. A., Jannuzzi, J. L., & Fricchione, G. L. (2008). Anxiety, independent of depressive symptoms, is associated with in-hospital cardiac complications after acute myocardial infarction. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 65, 557–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Janszky, I., Ahnve, S., Lundberg, I., & Hemmingsson, T. (2010). Early-onset depression, anxiety, and risk of subsequent coronary heart disease: 37-year follow-up of 49,321 young Swedish men. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 56, 31–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Martins, E. J., de Jonge, P., Beeya, N. A., Cohen, B. E., & Whooley, M. A. (2010). Scared to death? Generalized anxiety disorder and cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease: The heart and soul study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), 750–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Roest, A. M., Martens, E. J., de Jonge, P., & Denollet, J. (2010a). Anxiety and risk of incident coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 56, 38–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Roest, A. M., Martens, E. J., Denollet, J., & Jonge, P. (2010b). Prognostic association of anxiety post myocardial infarction with mortality and new cardiac events: A meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72, 563–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Rozanski, A., Blumenthal, J. A., & Kaplan, J. (1999). Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy. Circulation, 99, 2192–2217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Shen, B. J., Avivi, Y. E., Todaro, J. F., Spiro, A., III, Laurenceau, J.-P., Ward, K. D., et al. (2008). Anxiety characteristics independently and prospectively predict myocardial infarction in men: The unique contribution of anxiety among psychologic factors. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 51, 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Shibeshi, W. A., Young-Zu, Y., & Blatt, C. M. (2007). Anxiety worsens prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 49, 2021–2027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Strik, J. M. H., Denollet, J. K. L., Lousberg, R., & Honig, A. (2003). Comparing symptoms of depression and anxiety as predictors of cardiac events and increased health care consumption after myocardial infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 42(10), 1801–1807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. van den Broek, K. C., Nyklicek, I., van der Voort, P. H., Alings, M., Meijer, A., & Denollet, J. (2009). Risk of ventricular arrhythmia after implantable defibrillator treatment in anxious type D patients. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 54(6), 531–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center of Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, Division of General MedicineColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular HealthColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Linda C. Baumann
    • 1
  1. 1.School of NursingUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA