Continuous Glucose Monitor Systems
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A Continuous Glucose Monitor System (CGMS) measures glucose readings in interstitial fluid at regular intervals (usually every 5 min), 24 h a day. This was designed as a tool for patients with diabetes to more effectively manage their glucose levels with real-time information, as opposed to the momentary blood glucose sampling done with blood glucose meters multiple times per day. CGMS users insert a tiny sensor wire under their skin using an automatic applicator. A small, reusable transmitter sitting on the skin connects to the sensor wire. Some CGMS send the real-time readings wirelessly to a receiver or smart device where the user can view the information. One CGMS requires a scanner to see the current glucose level. In addition to showing real-time glucose information, CGMS show glucose direction and rate of change. Some CGMS have alarms which alert the user if the glucose level is too low or too high. Some CGMS allows the information to be transmitted to other people to help monitor glucose levels. Some CGMS require users to calibrate the sensor by inputting glucose levels obtained by a glucose meter 2–4 times a day. Other CGMS do not require calibration and may be used in place of a meter. Some of the recent CGMS versions are considered valid for glucose measurement and do not require glucose meter checks. CGMS can be used alone or may be linked to insulin pumps as part of a hybrid closed loop. CGMS are approved for use by adults and children. In the US market, there are currently three brands of CGMS.
CGMS can contribute to better diabetes management by allowing the user to see the immediate glucose response to insulin, carbohydrate intake, physical activity, and other events. All CGMS data can be downloaded and then accessed online by both the user and the diabetes care team. Reports can be generated which show daily continuous glucose levels. The information can assist the diabetes care team in diabetes management by seeing patterns and trends in glucose levels.
References and Further Reading
- Cemeroglu, A. P., Stone, R., Kleis, L., Racine, M. S., Postellon, D. C., & Wood, M. A. (2010). Use of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system in children and young adults on insulin pump therapy: Patients’ and caregivers’ perception of benefit. Pediatric Diabetes, 11(3), 182–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar