Macrocephaly Phenotype and Psychiatric Comorbidity in Autism Spectrum Disorder
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Macrocephaly is defined as a measurement of the head circumference which is 2 standard deviations (SDs) larger than the mean for a given age and sex (Bray et al. 1969). It is also known as occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), and it denotes the size of the cranium. It is different from megalencephaly, which is defined as increase in the size of the brain parenchyma exceeding twice the standard deviation (Fletcher 1900). Megalencephaly and macrocephaly may coexist in the same individual (Gooskens et al. 1988).
Macrocephaly can be idiopathic, familial, and benign. However, it can be the first indication of autism. In contrast megalencephaly is more often syndromic (Tan et al. 2018).
The head circumference is a useful index of brain size in children, and it is measured along the most prominent...
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