Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Living Edition
| Editors: Fred R. Volkmar

France and Autism

Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6435-8_102023-2

Historical Background

The first approach to autism in France was based on the psychoanalytic model, in terms of etiology as well as in treatments. Regarding etiology, the parents’ role in the pathology’s development was emphasized leading to treatments based on that interpretation. Therefore, in the extent that the child’s autism was supposed to be due to relational difficulties, psychotherapy prevailed for many years. There were mostly institutional interventions, implemented in day hospitals. They were initiated by psychiatrists such as Roger Misès and Serge Lebovici. Despite the assertions that psychoanalysts used a multifactorial approach, the treatments were essentially psychological leaving little room for educational aspects. Above all, they preferred a nondirective attitude saying that it was better to wait for “the emergence of desire” rather than to provide teaching. The parents were not directly involved in their child’s treatment and had to personally undergo psychotherapy....

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Reading

  1. Aguillon-Hernandez, N., Roché, L., Bonnet-Brilhault, F., Roux, S., Barthélémy, C., & Martineau, J. (2016). Eye movement monitoring and maturation of human faces exploration. Medical Principles and Practice.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000447971.
  2. Baduel, S., Guillon, Q., Afzali, M. H., Foulon, N., Kruck, J., & Rogé, B. (2016). The French version of the modified-checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT): A validation study on a French sample of 24 month-old children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2950-y.
  3. Barthélémy, C., & Gilbert, L. (1991). Les échelles d’évaluation clinique en psychiatrie de l’enfant. Paris: Expansion scientifique française.Google Scholar
  4. Barthélémy, C., Hameury, L., & Lelord, G. (1995). L’autisme de l’enfant: la thérapie d’échange et de développement. Paris: Expansion scientifique française.Google Scholar
  5. Bonnet-Brilhault, F., Alirol, S., Blanc, R., Bazaud, S., Marouillat, S., Thépault, R. A., Andres, C. R., Lemonnier, É., Barthélémy, C., Raynaud, M., Toutain, A., Gomot, M., & Laumonnier, F. (2016). GABA/glutamate synaptic pathways targeted by integrative genomic and electrophysiological explorations distinguish autism from intellectual disability. Molecular Psychiatry, 21(3), 411–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bourgeron, T. (2015). From the genetic architecture to synaptic plasticity in autism spectrum disorders. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16, 551–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Delorme, R., Ey, E., Toro, R., Leboyer, M., Gillberg, C., & Bourgeron, T. (2013). Progress towards treatments for synaptic defects in autism. Nature Medicine, 19, 685–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Derguy, C., M’Bailara, K., Michel, G., Roux, S., & Bouvard, M. (2016). The need for an ecological approach to parental stress in autism spectrum disorders: The combined role of individual and environmental factors. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(6), 1895–1905.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2719-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Durand, C., Betancur, C., Boeckers, T. M., Bockmann, J., Chaste, P., Fauchereau, F., Nygren, G., Rastam, M., Gillberg, I. C., Anckarsäter, H., Sponheim, E., Goubran-Botros, H., Delorme, R., Chabane, N., Mouren-Simeoni, M. C., de Mas, P., Bieth, E., Rogé, B., Héron, D., Burglen, L., Gillberg, C., Leboyer, M., & Bourgeron, T. (2007). Mutations of the synaptic scaffolding protein SHANK3 are associated with autism spectrum disorders. Nature Genetics, 39, 25–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Guillon, Q., Hadjikhani, N., Baduel, S., Kruck, J., Arnaud, M., & Rogé, B. (2014). Both dog and human faces are explored abnormally by young children with autism spectrum disorders. Neuroreport.  https://doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000000257.
  11. Guillon, Q., Afzali, M. H., Rogé, B., Baduel, S., Kruck, J., & Hadjikhani, N. (2015). The importance of networking in autism gaze analysis. PLoS One, 10(10), e0141191.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141191.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Guillon, Q., Rogé, B., Afzali, K., Baduel, S., Kruck, J., & Hadjikhani, N. (2016). Intact perception but abnormal orientation towards face like objects in young children with ASD. Scientific Reports, 6, 22119.  https://doi.org/10.1038/Srep22119.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Jamain, S., Quach, H., Betancur, C., Råstam, M., Colineaux, C., Gillberg, I. C., Soderstrom, H., Giros, B., Leboyer, M., Gillberg, C., & Bourgeron, T. (2003). Mutations of the X-linked neuroligins NLGN3 and NLGN4 are associated with autism. Nature Genetics, 34, 27–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Katz, J., d’Albis, M. A., Boisgontier, J., Poupon, C., Mangin, J. F., Guevara, P., Duclap, D., Hamdani, N., Petit, J., Monnet, D., Le Corvoisier, P., Leboyer, M., Delorme, R., & Houenou, J. (2016). Similar white matter but opposite grey matter changes in schizophrenia and high-functioning autism. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 134(1), 31–39.  https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.12579. Epub 2016 Apr 22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Rogé, B. (2017). Behaviour summarized evaluation – Revised (BSE-R). In F. R. Volkmar (Ed.), Encyclopedia of autism spectrum disorders (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  16. Salomone, E., Beranová, S., Bonnet-Brilhault, F., Briciet, L. M., Budisteanu, M., Buitelaar, J., Canal-Bedia, R., Felhosi, G., Fletcher-Watson, S., Freitag, C., Fuentes, J., Gallagher, L., Garcia, P. P., Gliga, F., Gomot, M., Green, J., Heimann, M., Loa, J. S., Kaale, A., Kawa, R., Kylliainen, A., Lemcke, S., Markovska-Simoska, S., Marschik, P. B., McConachie, H., Moilanen, I., Muratori, F., Narzisi, A., Noterdaeme, M., Oliveira, G., Oosterling, I., Pijl, M., Pop-Jordanova, N., Poustka, L., Roeyers, H., Rogé, B., Sinzig, J., Vicente, A., Warreyn, P., & Charman, T. (2015). Use of early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder across Europe. Autism, 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361315577218.
  17. Tardif, C., Lainé, F., Rodriguez, M., & Gepner, B. (2007). Slowing down presentation of facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and induces facial-vocal imitation in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(8), 1469–1484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Thillay, A., Lemaire, M., Roux, S., Houy-Durand, E., Barthélémy, C., Knight, R. T., Bidet-Caulet, A., & Bonnet-Brilhault, F. (2016). Atypical brain mechanisms of prediction according to uncertainty in autism. Frontiers in Neuroscience.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00317.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Université Toulouse Jean Jaurès, CERPPSToulouseFrance
  2. 2.Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), CeRESA (Centre Régional d’Education et de Services pour l’Autisme)ToulouseFrance