Diseases of the Fallopian Tube and Paratubal Region

  • Russell VangEmail author
Living reference work entry


The Italian physician and anatomist Gabriele Falloppio provided the first detailed and accurate description of the oviducts in humans in 1561 A.D. and designated it the Uteri Tuba (Graham 1951). This organ was eventually named after him. Since that time, a wide variety of nonneoplastic and neoplastic diseases of the fallopian tube has become recognized, but it is only recently that the pathogenesis of fallopian tube carcinoma is beginning to be understood.


  1. Abraham JL, Spore WW, Benirschke K (1982) Cysticercosis of the fallopian tube: histology and microanalysis. Hum Pathol 13:665–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ACOG (2008) ACOG practice bulletin no. 94: medical management of ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 111:1479–1485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams BE (1969) Intussusception of a fallopian tube. Am J Surg 118:591–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Afzelius BA, Eliasson R (1983) Male and female infertility problems in the immotile-cilia syndrome. Eur J Respir Dis Suppl 127:144–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alvarado-Cabrero I, Navani SS, Young RH et al (1997) Tumors of the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube: a clinicopathologic analysis of 20 cases, including nine carcinomas. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:189–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alvarado-Cabrero I, Young RH, Vamvakas EC et al (1999) Carcinoma of the fallopian tube: a clinicopathological study of 105 cases with observations on staging and prognostic factors. Gynecol Oncol 72:367–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alvarado-Cabrero I, Stolnicu S, Kiyokawa T et al (2013) Carcinoma of the fallopian tube: results of a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 127 patients with evaluation of staging and prognostic factors. Ann Diagn Pathol 17:159–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aoyama T, Mizuno T, Andoh K et al (1996) Alpha-Fetoprotein-producing (hepatoid) carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Gynecol Oncol 63:261–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ardighieri L, Lonardi S, Moratto D et al (2014) Characterization of the immune cell repertoire in the normal fallopian tube. Int J Gynecol Pathol 33:581–591PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arvidson CG, Kirkpatrick R, Witkamp MT et al (1999) Neisseria gonorrhoeae mutants altered in toxicity to human fallopian tubes and molecular characterization of the genetic locus involved. Infect Immun 67:643–652PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Aslani M, Scully RE (1989) Primary carcinoma of the broad ligament. Report of four cases and review of the literature. Cancer 64:1540–1545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aslani M, Ahn GH, Scully RE (1988) Serous papillary cystadenoma of borderline malignancy of broad ligament. A report of 25 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 7:131–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Asmussen M, Kaern J, Kjoerstad K et al (1988) Primary adenocarcinoma localized to the fallopian tubes: report on 33 cases. Gynecol Oncol 30:183–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Aydin H, Young RH, Ronnett BM et al (2005) Clear cell papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis and mesosalpinx: immunohistochemical differentiation from metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 29:520–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ayres C, Ratnayake G, McNally O et al (2017) Challenging salpingectomy as a risk-reducing measure for ovarian cancer: histopathological analysis of the tubo-ovarian interface in women undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Int J Gynecol Cancer 27:703–707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Aziz S, Kuperstein G, Rosen B et al (2001) A genetic epidemiological study of carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Gynecol Oncol 80:341–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baekelandt M, Jorunn NA, Kristensen GB et al (2000) Carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Cancer 89:2076–2084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Baergen RN, Rutgers J, Young RH (2003) Extrauterine lesions of intermediate trophoblast. Int J Gynecol Pathol 22:362–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bagby C, Ronnett BM, Yemelyanova A et al (2013) Clinically occult tubal and ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas presenting in uterine samples: diagnostic pitfalls and clues to improve recognition of tumor origin. Int J Gynecol Pathol 32:433–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bartlett TE, Chindera K, McDermott J et al (2016) Epigenetic reprogramming of fallopian tube fimbriae in BRCA mutation carriers defines early ovarian cancer evolution. Nat Commun 7:11620PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bartnik J, Powell WS, Moriber-Katz S et al (1989) Metaplastic papillary tumor of the fallopian tube. Case report, immunohistochemical features, and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 113:545–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bell DA, Mondschein M, Scully RE (1986) Giant cell arteritis of the female genital tract. A report of three cases. Am J Surg Pathol 10:696–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Benoit MF, Hannigan EV (2006) A 10-year review of primary fallopian tube cancer at a community hospital: a high association of synchronous and metachronous cancers. Int J Gynecol Cancer 16:29–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bernardus RE, Van der Slikke JW, Roex AJ et al (1984) Torsion of the fallopian tube: some considerations on its etiology. Obstet Gynecol 64:675–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Beyth Y, Kopolovic J (1982) Accessory tubes: a possible contributing factor in infertility. Fertil Steril 38:382–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bhagavan BS, Ruffier J, Shinn B (1982) Pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules in the lower female genital tract: relationship to the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. Hum Pathol 13:898–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bijron JG, Seldenrijk CA, Zweemer RP et al (2013) Fallopian tube intraluminal tumor spread from noninvasive precursor lesions: a novel metastatic route in early pelvic carcinogenesis. Am J Surg Pathol 37:1123–1130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Boakye K, Omalu B, Thomas L (1997) Fallopian tube and pulmonary sarcoidosis. A case report. J Reprod Med 42:533–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bolaji II, Oktaba M, Mohee K et al (2015) An odyssey through salpingitis isthmica nodosa. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 184:73–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bolton KL, Chenevix-Trench G, Goh C et al (2012) Association between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and survival in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. JAMA 307:382–390PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bossuyt V, Medeiros F, Drapkin R et al (2008) Adenofibroma of the fimbria: a common entity that is indistinguishable from ovarian adenofibroma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 27:390–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bouyer J, Coste J, Shojaei T et al (2003) Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: a comprehensive analysis based on a large case-control, population-based study in France. Am J Epidemiol 157:185–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bowen NJ, Logani S, Dickerson EB et al (2007) Emerging roles for PAX8 in ovarian cancer and endosalpingeal development. Gynecol Oncol 104:331–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Brady A, Nayar A, Cross P et al (2012) A detailed immunohistochemical analysis of 2 cases of papillary cystadenoma of the broad ligament: an extremely rare neoplasm characteristic of patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease. Int J Gynecol Pathol 31:133–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Breen JL (1970) A 21 year survey of 654 ectopic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 106:1004–1019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brenner PF, Roy S, Mishell DR Jr (1980) Ectopic pregnancy. A study of 300 consecutive surgically treated cases. JAMA 243:673–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Brescia RJ, Cardoso de Almeida PC, Fuller AF Jr et al (1985) Female adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin with multiple recurrences over 16 years. Cancer 56:1456–1461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Brooks JJ, Wheeler JE (1977) Granulomatous salpingitis secondary to Crohn’s disease. Obstet Gynecol 49:31–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Burton JL, Lidbury EA, Gillespie AM et al (2001) Over-diagnosis of hydatidiform mole in early tubal ectopic pregnancy. Histopathology 38:409–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Callahan MJ, Crum CP, Medeiros F et al (2007) Primary fallopian tube malignancies in BRCA-positive women undergoing surgery for ovarian cancer risk reduction. J Clin Oncol 25:3985–3990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network (2011) Integrated genomic analyses of ovarian carcinoma. Nature 474:609–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Carlson JA Jr, Ackerman BL, Wheeler JE (1993) Malignant mixed Mullerian tumor of the fallopian tube. Cancer 71:187–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Carlson JW, Miron A, Jarboe EA et al (2008) Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma: its potential role in primary peritoneal serous carcinoma and serous cancer prevention. J Clin Oncol 26:4160–4165PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Carlson JW, Jarboe EA, Kindelberger D et al (2010) Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma: diagnostic reproducibility and its implications. Int J Gynecol Pathol 29:310–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cass I, Holschneider C, Datta N et al (2005) BRCA-mutation-associated fallopian tube carcinoma: a distinct clinical phenotype? Obstet Gynecol 106:1327–1334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cass I, Walts A, Karlan BY (2010) Does risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy leave behind residual tube? Gynecol Oncol 117:27–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cataldo NA, Nicholson M, Bihrle D (1990) Uterine serosal trophoblastic implant after linear salpingostomy for ectopic pregnancy at laparotomy. Obstet Gynecol 76:523–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Chang KL, Crabtree GS, Lim-Tan SK et al (1993) Primary extrauterine endometrial stromal neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases and a review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol 12:282–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Chay WY, McCluggage WG, Lee CH et al (2016) Outcomes of incidental fallopian tube high-grade serous carcinoma and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in women at low risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 26:431–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Chen EY, Mehra K, Mehrad M et al (2010) Secretory cell outgrowth, PAX2 and serous carcinogenesis in the fallopian tube. J Pathol 222:110–116PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Chene G, Tchirkov A, Pierre-Eymard E et al (2013) Early telomere shortening and genomic instability in tubo-ovarian preneoplastic lesions. Clin Cancer Res 19:2873–2882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Chetty R, Reddy I, Batitang S (2003) Xanthelasma or xanthoma of the fallopian tube. Arch Pathol Lab Med 127:e417–e419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Cheung AN, So KF, Ngan HY et al (1994a) Primary squamous cell carcinoma of fallopian tube. Int J Gynecol Pathol 13:92–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Cheung AN, Young RH, Scully RE (1994b) Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the fallopian tube associated with salpingitis. A report of 14 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 18:1125–1130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Clark NV, Endicott SP, Jorgensen EM et al (2017) Review of sterilization techniques and clinical updates. J Minim Invasive Gynecol.
  56. Clement PB (2007) The pathology of endometriosis: a survey of the many faces of a common disease emphasizing diagnostic pitfalls and unusual and newly appreciated aspects. Adv Anat Pathol 14:241–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Clement PB, Young RH, Scully RE (1988) Necrotic pseudoxanthomatous nodules of ovary and peritoneum in endometriosis. Am J Surg Pathol 12:390–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Clement PB, Young RH, Scully RE (1989) Liesegang rings in the female genital tract. A report of three cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 8:271–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Coddington CC, Chandler PE, Smith GW (1990) Accessory fallopian tube. A case report. J Reprod Med 35:420–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Colon E, Carlson JW (2014) Evaluation of the fallopian tubes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: persistence of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 33:463–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Cox R, Vang R, Epstein JI (2014) Papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis and broad ligament: morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap with clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 38:713–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Crum CP, Alvarado-Cabrero I, Bijron JG et al (2014) Tumours of the fallopian tube. In: Kurman RJ, Carcangiu ML, Herrington CS et al (eds) WHO classification of tumours of female reproductive organs, 4th edn. IARC Press, LyonGoogle Scholar
  63. Culton LK, Deavers MT, Silva EG et al (2006) Endometrioid carcinoma simultaneously involving the uterus and the fallopian tube: a clinicopathologic study of 13 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 30:844–849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. David MP, Ben-Zwi D, Langer L (1981) Tubal intramural polyps and their relationship to infertility. Fertil Steril 35:526–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Daw E (1973) Duplication of the uterine tube. Obstet Gynecol 42:137–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Daya D (1994) Malignant female adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin with review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 118:310–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Daya D, Young RH, Scully RE (1992) Endometrioid carcinoma of the fallopian tube resembling an adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin: a report of six cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 11:122–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. DeCherney AH, Cholst I, Naftolin F (1981) Structure and function of the fallopian tubes following exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) during gestation. Fertil Steril 36:741–745PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Deffieux X, Morice P, Thoury A et al (2005) Anatomy of pelvic and para-aortic nodal spread in patients with primary fallopian tube carcinoma. J Am Coll Surg 200:45–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Delabrousse E, Site O, Le MA et al (1999) Intrahepatic pregnancy: sonography and CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 173:1377–1378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Delair D, Soslow RA, Gardner GJ et al (2013) Tumoral displacement into fallopian tubes in patients undergoing robotically assisted hysterectomy for newly diagnosed endometrial cancer. Int J Gynecol Pathol 32:188–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Demopoulos RI, Aronov R, Mesia A (2001) Clues to the pathogenesis of fallopian tube carcinoma: a morphological and immunohistochemical case control study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 20:128–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Silver SA, Tavassoli FA (1999) Wolffian adnexal tumor, so-called female adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin (FATWO): immunohistochemical evidence in support of a wolffian origin. Hum Pathol 30:856–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. di Re E, Grosso G, Raspagliesi F et al (1996) Fallopian tube cancer: incidence and role of lymphatic spread. Gynecol Oncol 62:199–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Dische FE, Burt LJ, Davidson NJ et al (1974) Tubo-ovarian actinomycosis associated with intrauterine contraceptive devices. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 81:724–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Donnez J, Casanas-Roux F, Ferin J (1979) Macroscopic and microscopic studies of fallopian tube after laparoscopic sterilization. Contraception 20:497–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Donnez J, Casanas-Roux F, Caprasse J et al (1985) Cyclic changes in ciliation, cell height, and mitotic activity in human tubal epithelium during reproductive life. Fertil Steril 43:554–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Doss BJ, Jacques SM, Qureshi F et al (1998) Extratubal secondary trophoblastic implants: clinicopathologic correlation and review of the literature. Hum Pathol 29:184–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Dougherty CM, Cotten NM (1964) Proliferative epithelial lesions of the uterine tube. I. adenomatous hyperplasia. Obstet Gynecol 24:849–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Du H, Taylor HS (2004) Molecular regulation of Mullerian development by Hox genes. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1034:152–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Eckert MA, Pan S, Hernandez KM et al (2016) Genomics of ovarian cancer progression reveals diverse metastatic trajectories including intraepithelial metastasis to the fallopian tube. Cancer Discov 6:1342–1351PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Eddy GL, Copeland LJ, Gershenson DM et al (1984) Fallopian tube carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 64:546–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Edwards JL, Apicella MA (2004) The molecular mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae to initiate infection differ between men and women. Clin Microbiol Rev 17:965–981PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Egan AJ, Russell P (1996) Transitional (urothelial) cell metaplasia of the fallopian tube mucosa: morphological assessment of three cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 15:72–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Falcone T, Mascha EJ, Goldberg JM et al (1998) A study of risk factors for ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. J Women’s Health 7:459–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Farquhar CM (2005) Ectopic pregnancy. Lancet 366:583–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Fernstrom I, Lagerlof B (1964) Polyps in the intramural part of the fallopian tubes. A radiologic and clinical study. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 71:681–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Finch A, Beiner M, Lubinski J et al (2006) Salpingo-oophorectomy and the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. JAMA 296:185–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Folkins AK, Jarboe EA, Saleemuddin A et al (2008) A candidate precursor to pelvic serous cancer (p53 signature) and its prevalence in ovaries and fallopian tubes from women with BRCA mutations. Gynecol Oncol 109:168–173PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Fortier KJ, Haney AF (1985) The pathologic spectrum of uterotubal junction obstruction. Obstet Gynecol 65:93–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Foster R, Solano S, Mahoney J et al (2006) Reclassification of a tubal leiomyosarcoma as an eGIST by molecular evaluation of c-KIT. Gynecol Oncol 101:363–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Furuya M, Murakami T, Sato O et al (2002) Pseudoxanthomatous and xanthogranulomatous salpingitis of the fallopian tube: a report of four cases and a literature review. Int J Gynecol Pathol 21:56–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Fylstra DL (1998) Tubal pregnancy: a review of current diagnosis and treatment. Obstet Gynecol Surv 53:320–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gagner JP, Mittal K (2005) Malignant mixed Mullerian tumor of the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube: origin as an intraepithelial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 97:219–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Gan C, Chenoy R, Chandrasekaran D et al (2017) Persistence of fimbrial tissue on the ovarian surface after salpingectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 217:425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ganesan R, Ferryman SR, Meier L et al (2000) Vasculitis of the female genital tract with clinicopathologic correlation: a study of 46 cases with follow-up. Int J Gynecol Pathol 19:258–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Gardner GH, Greene RR, Peckham BM (1948) Normal and cystic structures of broad ligament. Am J Obstet Gynecol 55:917–939PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Gelfand M, Ross MD, Blair DM et al (1971) Distribution and extent of schistosomiasis in female pelvic organs, with special reference to the genital tract, as determined at autopsy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 20:846–849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. George SH, Milea A, Shaw PA (2012) Proliferation in the normal FTE is a hallmark of the follicular phase, not BRCA mutation status. Clin Cancer Res 18:6199–6207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Gerritzen LH, Grefte JM, Hoogerbrugge N et al (2006) A substantial part of the fallopian tube is left after standard prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Int J Gynecol Cancer 16:1940–1944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Gersell DJ, King TC (1988) Papillary cystadenoma of the mesosalpinx in von Hippel-Lindau disease. Am J Surg Pathol 12:145–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Gilks CB, Irving J, Kobel M et al (2015) Incidental nonuterine high-grade serous carcinomas arise in the fallopian tube in most cases: further evidence for the tubal origin of high-grade serous carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol 39:357–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Gisser SD (1986) Obstructing fallopian tube papilloma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 5:179–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Goyal A, Masand RP, Roma AA (2016) Value of PAX-8 and SF-1 immunohistochemistry in the distinction between female adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin and its mimics. Int J Gynecol Pathol 35:167–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Graham H (1951) Eternal Eve: the history of gynaecology & obstetrics. Doubleday, Garden CityGoogle Scholar
  106. Green LK, Kott ML (1989) Histopathologic findings in ectopic tubal pregnancy. Int J Gynecol Pathol 8:255–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Grimes HG, Nosal RA, Gallagher JC (1983) Ovarian pregnancy: a series of 24 cases. Obstet Gynecol 61:174–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Guioli S, Sekido R, Lovell-Badge R (2007) The origin of the Mullerian duct in chick and mouse. Dev Biol 302:389–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Habana A, Dokras A, Giraldo JL et al (2000) Cornual heterotopic pregnancy: contemporary management options. Am J Obstet Gynecol 182:1264–1270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hafner LM (2015) Pathogenesis of fallopian tube damage caused by Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Contraception 92:108–115PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Haines M (1958) Tuberculous salpingitis as seen by the pathologist and the surgeon. Am J Obstet Gynecol 75:472–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Halbert SA, Patton DL, Zarutskie PW et al (1997) Function and structure of cilia in the fallopian tube of an infertile woman with Kartagener’s syndrome. Hum Reprod 12:55–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Heintz AP, Odicino F, Maisonneuve P et al (2006) Carcinoma of the fallopian tube. FIGO 6th annual report on the results of treatment in gynecological cancer. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 95(Suppl 1):S145–S160PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Hellstrom AC, Silfversward C, Nilsson B et al (1994) Carcinoma of the fallopian tube. A clinical and histopathologic review. The Radiumhemmet series. Int J Gynecol Cancer 4:395–400PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Hellstrom AC, Blegen H, Malec M et al (2000) Recurrent fallopian tube carcinoma: TP53 mutation and clinical course. Int J Gynecol Pathol 19:145–151PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Herbold DR, Axelrod JH, Bobowski SJ et al (1988) Glassy cell carcinoma of the fallopian tube. A case report. Int J Gynecol Pathol 7:384–390PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Hernandez-Rodriguez J, Tan CD, Rodriguez ER et al (2009) Gynecologic vasculitis: an analysis of 163 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 88:169–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Herrera GA, Reimann BE, Greenberg HL et al (1983) Pigmentosis tubae, a new entity: light and electron microscopic study. Obstet Gynecol 61:80S–83SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Heselmeyer K, Hellstrom AC, Blegen H et al (1998) Primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube: comparative genomic hybridization reveals high genetic instability and a specific, recurring pattern of chromosomal aberrations. Int J Gynecol Pathol 17:245–254PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Hinton EL, Bobo LD, Wu TC et al (2000) Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in archival paraffinized specimens from chronic salpingitis cases using the polymerase chain reaction. Fertil Steril 74:152–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Hirschowitz L, Salmons N, Ganesan R (2011) Ovarian hilus cell heterotopia. Int J Gynecol Pathol 30:46–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Homm RJ, Holtz G, Garvin AJ (1987) Isthmic ectopic pregnancy and salpingitis isthmica nodosa. Fertil Steril 48:756–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Hoppe E, de Ybarlucea LR, Collet J et al (2007) Isolated vasculitis of the female genital tract: a case series and review of literature. Virchows Arch 451:1083–1089PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Howitt BE, Emori MM, Drapkin R et al (2015) GATA3 is a sensitive and specific marker of benign and malignant mesonephric lesions in the lower female genital tract. Am J Surg Pathol 39:1411–1419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Hu CY, Taymor ML, Hertig AT (1950) Primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Am J Obstet Gynecol 59:58–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Hunt JL, Lynn AA (2002) Histologic features of surgically removed fallopian tubes. Arch Pathol Lab Med 126:951–955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Hunter RH (1930) Observations on the development of the human female genital tract. Contrib Embryol 22:91–107Google Scholar
  128. Imachi M, Tsukamoto N, Shigematsu T et al (1992) Malignant mixed Mullerian tumor of the fallopian tube: report of two cases and review of literature. Gynecol Oncol 47:114–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Jacoby AF, Fuller AF Jr, Thor AD et al (1993) Primary leiomyosarcoma of the fallopian tube. Gynecol Oncol 51:404–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Jacques SM, Qureshi F, Ramirez NC et al (1997) Retained trophoblastic tissue in fallopian tubes: a consequence of unsuspected ectopic pregnancies. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:219–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Jansen RP (1984) Endocrine response in the fallopian tube. Endocr Rev 5:525–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Jarboe E, Folkins A, Nucci MR et al (2008) Serous carcinogenesis in the fallopian tube: a descriptive classification. Int J Gynecol Pathol 27:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Jarboe EA, Miron A, Carlson JW et al (2009) Coexisting intraepithelial serous carcinomas of the endometrium and fallopian tube: frequency and potential significance. Int J Gynecol Pathol 28:308–315PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Kariminejad MH, Scully RE (1973) Female adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin. A distinctive pathologic entity. Cancer 31:671–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Karst AM, Levanon K, Drapkin R (2011) Modeling high-grade serous ovarian carcinogenesis from the fallopian tube. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:7547–7552PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Karst AM, Jones PM, Vena N et al (2014) Cyclin E1 deregulation occurs early in secretory cell transformation to promote formation of fallopian tube-derived high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Cancer Res 74:1141–1152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Kauff ND, Barakat RR (2007) Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in patients with germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. J Clin Oncol 25:2921–2927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Keeney GL, Thrasher TV (1988) Metaplastic papillary tumor of the fallopian tube: a case report with ultrastructure. Int J Gynecol Pathol 7:86–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Keith LG, Berger GS, Edelman DA et al (1984) On the causation of pelvic inflammatory disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 149:215–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Kemp B, Kertschanska S, Handt S et al (1999) Different placentation patterns in viable compared with nonviable tubal pregnancy suggest a divergent clinical management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 181:615–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Kempson RL, Fletcher CDM, Evans HL et al (2001) Tumors of the soft tissues. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  142. Kim KR, Scully RE (1990) Peritoneal keratin granulomas with carcinomas of endometrium and ovary and atypical polypoid adenomyoma of endometrium. A clinicopathological analysis of 22 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 14:925–932PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Kim HS, Thonse VR, Judson K et al (2007) Utero-ovarian anastomosis: histopathologic correlation after uterine artery embolization with or without ovarian artery embolization. J Vasc Interv Radiol 18:31–39PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Kindelberger DW, Lee Y, Miron A et al (2007) Intraepithelial carcinoma of the fimbria and pelvic serous carcinoma: evidence for a causal relationship. Am J Surg Pathol 31:161–169PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Klein M, Rosen A, Lahousen M et al (1994) Lymphogenous metastasis in the primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Gynecol Oncol 55:336–338PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Klein M, Rosen AC, Lahousen M et al (1999) Lymphadenectomy in primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Cancer Lett 147:63–66PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Klinkebiel D, Zhang W, Akers SN et al (2016) DNA methylome analyses implicate fallopian tube epithelia as the origin for high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Mol Cancer Res 14:787–794PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Koc N, Ayas S, Arinkan SA (2018) Comparison of the classical method and SEE-FIM protocol in detecting microscopic lesions in fallopian tubes with gynecological lesions. J Pathol Transl Med 52:21–27Google Scholar
  149. Kommoss F, Faruqi A, Gilks CB et al (2017) Uterine serous carcinomas frequently metastasize to the fallopian tube and can mimic serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 41:161–170PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Korn WT, Schatzki SC, DiSciullo AJ et al (1990) Papillary cystadenoma of the broad ligament in von Hippel-Lindau disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 163:596–598PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. Koshiyama M, Konishi I, Yoshida M et al (1994) Transitional cell carcinoma of the fallopian tube: a light and electron microscopic study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 13:175–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Kristensen GB, Bollerup AC, Lind K et al (1985) Infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in women with acute salpingitis. Genitourin Med 61:179–184PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. Kuchenbaecker KB, Hopper JL, Barnes DR et al (2017) Risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. JAMA 317:2402–2416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Kuhn E, Meeker A, Wang TL et al (2010) Shortened telomeres in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma: an early event in ovarian high-grade serous carcinogenesis. Am J Surg Pathol 34:829–836PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Kuhn E, Kurman RJ, Sehdev AS et al (2012a) Ki-67 labeling index as an adjunct in the diagnosis of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 31:416–422PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Kuhn E, Kurman RJ, Soslow RA et al (2012b) The diagnostic and biological implications of laminin expression in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 36:1826–1834PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Kuhn E, Kurman RJ, Vang R et al (2012c) TP53 mutations in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and concurrent pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma – evidence supporting the clonal relationship of the two lesions. J Pathol 226:421–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Kuhn E, Wang TL, Doberstein K et al (2016) CCNE1 amplification and centrosome number abnormality in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma: further evidence supporting its role as a precursor of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma. Mod Pathol 29:1254–1261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Kurman RJ, Vang R, Junge J et al (2011) Papillary tubal hyperplasia: the putative precursor of ovarian atypical proliferative (borderline) serous tumors, noninvasive implants, and endosalpingiosis. Am J Surg Pathol 35:1605–1614PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Kutluay L, Vicdan K, Turan C et al (1994) Tubal histopathology in ectopic pregnancies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 57:91–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Labidi-Galy SI, Papp E, Hallberg D et al (2017) High grade serous ovarian carcinomas originate in the fallopian tube. Nat Commun 8:1093PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Ladefoged C, Lorentzen M (1988) Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract. Histopathology 13:541–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Lamb JD, Garcia RL, Goff BA et al (2006) Predictors of occult neoplasia in women undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 194:1702–1709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Landers DV, Sweet RL (1983) Tubo-ovarian abscess: contemporary approach to management. Rev Infect Dis 5:876–884PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Lareau SM, Beigi RH (2008) Pelvic inflammatory disease and tubo-ovarian abscess. Infect Dis Clin N Am 22:693–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Laury AR, Ning G, Quick CM et al (2011) Fallopian tube correlates of ovarian serous borderline tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 35:1759–1765PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Lax SF, Vang R, Tavassoli FA (2003) Tumours of the fallopian tube and uterine ligaments: tumours of the uterine ligaments. In: Tavassoli FA, Deville P (eds) World Health Organization classification of tumors. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the breast and female genital organs. IARC Press, LyonGoogle Scholar
  168. Lee A, Ying YK, Novy MJ (1997) Hysteroscopy, hysterosalpingography and tubal ostial polyps in infertility patients. J Reprod Med 42:337–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Lee Y, Miron A, Drapkin R et al (2007) A candidate precursor to serous carcinoma that originates in the distal fallopian tube. J Pathol 211:26–35PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. Lefrancq T, Orain I, Michalak S et al (1999) Herpetic salpingitis and fallopian tube prolapse. Histopathology 34:548–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Lengyel E, Fleming S, McEwen KA et al (2013) Serial sectioning of the fallopian tube allows for improved identification of primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 129:120–123PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. Lerwill MF, Sung R, Oliva E et al (2004) Smooth muscle tumors of the ovary: a clinicopathologic study of 54 cases emphasizing prognostic criteria, histologic variants, and differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol 28:1436–1451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Levine DA, Argenta PA, Yee CJ et al (2003) Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinomas associated with BRCA mutations. J Clin Oncol 21:4222–4227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Li S, Zimmerman RL, LiVolsi VA (1999) Mixed malignant germ cell tumor of the fallopian tube. Int J Gynecol Pathol 18:183–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Lisa JR, Gioia JD, Rubin IC (1954) Observations on the interstitial portion of the fallopian tube. Surg Gynecol Obstet 99:159–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Longacre TA, Oliva E, Soslow RA (2007) Recommendations for the reporting of fallopian tube neoplasms. Hum Pathol 38:1160–1163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Longworth A, Ganesan R, Yoong AKH et al (2018) Microscopic heterotopic extraovarian sex cord-stromal proliferations: expanding the histologic spectrum. Int J Gynecol Pathol 37:35–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Lyons RA, Saridogan E, Djahanbakhch O (2006) The reproductive significance of human fallopian tube cilia. Hum Reprod Update 12:363–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Mahe E, Tang S, Deb P et al (2013) Do deeper sections increase the frequency of detection of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) in the “sectioning and extensively examining the FIMbriated end” (SEE-FIM) protocol? Int J Gynecol Pathol 32:353–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Maisey K, Nardocci G, Imarai M et al (2003) Expression of proinflammatory cytokines and receptors by human fallopian tubes in organ culture following challenge with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect Immun 71:527–532PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Majmudar B, Henderson PH III, Semple E (1983) Salpingitis isthmica nodosa: a high-risk factor for tubal pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 62:73–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Manchanda R, Abdelraheim A, Johnson M et al (2011) Outcome of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA carriers and women of unknown mutation status. BJOG 118:814–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Marcus SF, Macnamee M, Brinsden P (1995) Heterotopic pregnancies after in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Hum Reprod 10:1232–1236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Mardh PA, Ripa T, Svensson L et al (1977) Chlamydia trachomatis infection in patients with acute salpingitis. N Engl J Med 296:1377–1379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Marquez RT, Baggerly KA, Patterson AP et al (2005) Patterns of gene expression in different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer correlate with those in normal fallopian tube, endometrium, and colon. Clin Cancer Res 11:6116–6126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Martin DC, Khare VK, Miller BE (1995) Association of Chlamydia trachomatis immunoglobulin gamma titers with dystrophic peritoneal calcification, psammoma bodies, adhesions, and hydrosalpinges. Fertil Steril 63:39–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Matsushita H, Kodama S, Aoki Y et al (1998) Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration with anti-Purkinje cell antibody associated with primary tubal cancer. Gynecol Obstet Investig 45:140–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. McCluggage WG, Judge MJ, Clarke BA et al (2015a) Data set for reporting of ovary, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinoma: recommendations from the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR). Mod Pathol 28:1101–1122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. McCluggage WG, Stewart CJ, Iacobelli J et al (2015b) Microscopic extraovarian sex cord proliferations: an undescribed phenomenon. Histopathology 66:555–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. McCluggage WG, Hirschowitz L, Gilks CB et al (2017) The fallopian tube origin and primary site assignment in extrauterine high-grade serous carcinoma: findings of a survey of pathologists and clinicians. Int J Gynecol Pathol 36:230–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. McCormack WM (1994) Pelvic inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 330:115–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. McDaniel AS, Stall JN, Hovelson DH et al (2015) Next-generation sequencing of tubal intraepithelial carcinomas. JAMA Oncol 1:1128–1132PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. McGee ZA, Jensen RL, Clemens CM et al (1999) Gonococcal infection of human fallopian tube mucosa in organ culture: relationship of mucosal tissue TNF-alpha concentration to sloughing of ciliated cells. Sex Transm Dis 26:160–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Medeiros F, Muto MG, Lee Y et al (2006) The tubal fimbria is a preferred site for early adenocarcinoma in women with familial ovarian cancer syndrome. Am J Surg Pathol 30:230–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Mehra K, Mehrad M, Ning G et al (2011a) STICS, SCOUTs and p53 signatures; a new language for pelvic serous carcinogenesis. Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 3:625–634Google Scholar
  196. Mehra KK, Chang MC, Folkins AK et al (2011b) The impact of tissue block sampling on the detection of p53 signatures in fallopian tubes from women with BRCA 1 or 2 mutations (BRCA+) and controls. Mod Pathol 24:152–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Meserve EEK, Brouwer J, Crum CP (2017a) Serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasia: the concept and its application. Mod Pathol 30:710–721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Meserve EEK, Mirkovic J, Conner JR et al (2017b) Frequency of “incidental” serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) in women without a history of or genetic risk factor for high-grade serous carcinoma: a six-year study. Gynecol Oncol 146:69–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Milchgrub S, Sandstad J (1991) Arias-Stella reaction in fallopian tube epithelium. A light and electron microscopic study with a review of the literature. Am J Clin Pathol 95:892–895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Moore SW, Enterline HT (1975) Significance of proliferative epithelial lesions of the uterine tube. Obstet Gynecol 45:385–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Moore KN, Moxley KM, Fader AN et al (2007) Serous fallopian tube carcinoma: a retrospective, multi-institutional case-control comparison to serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol 107:398–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Morris H, Emms M, Visser T et al (1986) Lymphoid tissue of the normal fallopian tube – a form of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)? Int J Gynecol Pathol 5:11–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Morrison JC, Blanco LZ Jr, Vang R et al (2015) Incidental serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and early invasive serous carcinoma in the nonprophylactic setting: analysis of a case series. Am J Surg Pathol 39:442–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Munichor M, Kerner H, Cohen H et al (1997) The lipofuscin-iron association in pigmentosis tubae. Ultrastruct Pathol 21:273–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Muto MG, Lage JM, Berkowitz RS et al (1991) Gestational trophoblastic disease of the fallopian tube. J Reprod Med 36:57–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Na K, Kim HS (2017) Clinicopathological characteristics of fallopian tube metastases from primary endometrial, cervical, and nongynecological malignancies: a single institutional experience. Virchows Arch 471:363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Navani SS, Alvarado-Cabrero I, Young RH et al (1996) Endometrioid carcinoma of the fallopian tube: a clinicopathologic analysis of 26 cases. Gynecol Oncol 63:371–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Nawroth F, Nugent W, Ludwig M (2006) Congenital partial atresia of the fallopian tube. Reprod Biomed Online 12:205–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Nayar R, Snell J, Silverberg SG et al (1996) Placental site nodule occurring in a fallopian tube. Hum Pathol 27:1243–1245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Ning G, Bijron JG, Yamamoto Y et al (2014) The PAX2-null immunophenotype defines multiple lineages with common expression signatures in benign and neoplastic oviductal epithelium. J Pathol 234:478–487PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Nogales FF, Goyenaga P, Preda O et al (2012) An analysis of five clear cell papillary cystadenomas of mesosalpinx and broad ligament: four associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease and one aggressive sporadic type. Histopathology 60:748–757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Nowee ME, Dorsman JC, Piek JM et al (2007a) HER-2/neu and p27Kip1 in progression of fallopian tube carcinoma: an immunohistochemical and array comparative genomic hybridization study. Histopathology 51:666–673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Nowee ME, Snijders AM, Rockx DA et al (2007b) DNA profiling of primary serous ovarian and fallopian tube carcinomas with array comparative genomic hybridization and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. J Pathol 213:46–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. O’Rahilly R (1983) The timing and sequence of events in the development of the human reproductive system during the embryonic period proper. Anat Embryol (Berl) 166:247–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. O’Rahilly R (1989) Prenatal human development. In: Wynn RM, Jollie WP (eds) Biology of the uterus, 2nd edn. Plenum Medical Book Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  216. Okamura H, Morikawa H, Oshima M et al (1977) A morphologic study of mesotubarium ovarica in the human. Obstet Gynecol 49:197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Oliver R, Malik M, Coker A et al (2007) Management of extra-tubal and rare ectopic pregnancies: case series and review of current literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet 276:125–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Orvis GD, Behringer RR (2007) Cellular mechanisms of Mullerian duct formation in the mouse. Dev Biol 306:493–504PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Ouldamer L, Caille A, Body G (2013) Fallopian tube prolapse after hysterectomy: a systematic review. PLoS One 8:e76543PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Papadimitriou CA, Peitsidis P, Bozas G et al (2008) Paclitaxel- and platinum-based postoperative chemotherapy for primary fallopian tube carcinoma: a single institution experience. Oncology 75:42–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Parikh FR, Nadkarni SG, Kamat SA et al (1997) Genital tuberculosis – a major pelvic factor causing infertility in Indian women. Fertil Steril 67:497–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Parker A, Lee V, Dalrymple C et al (2003) Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour: report of a case in the fallopian tube. Pathology 35:136–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Parker RL, Dadmanesh F, Young RH et al (2004) Polypoid endometriosis: a clinicopathologic analysis of 24 cases and a review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 28:285–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Patrono MG, Iniesta MD, Malpica A et al (2015) Clinical outcomes in patients with isolated serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC): a comprehensive review. Gynecol Oncol 139:568–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Pauerstein CJ, Croxatto HB, Eddy CA et al (1986) Anatomy and pathology of tubal pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 67:301–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Pere H, Tapper J, Seppala M et al (1998) Genomic alterations in fallopian tube carcinoma: comparison to serous uterine and ovarian carcinomas reveals similarity suggesting likeness in molecular pathogenesis. Cancer Res 58:4274–4276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Perets R, Wyant GA, Muto KW et al (2013) Transformation of the fallopian tube secretory epithelium leads to high-grade serous ovarian cancer in Brca;Tp53;Pten models. Cancer Cell 24:751–765PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Persaud V (1970) Etiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. Radiologic and pathologic studies. Obstet Gynecol 36:257–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Persson E, Holmberg K (1984) A longitudinal study of Actinomyces israelii in the female genital tract. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 63:207–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Peters WA III, Andersen WA, Hopkins MP et al (1988) Prognostic features of carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Obstet Gynecol 71:757–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Pins MR, Young RH, Crum CP et al (1997) Cervical squamous cell carcinoma in situ with intraepithelial extension to the upper genital tract and invasion of tubes and ovaries: report of a case with human papilloma virus analysis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:272–278PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  232. Platz CE, Benda JA (1995) Female genital tract cancer. Cancer 75:270–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Poon C, Hyde S, Grant P et al (2016) Incidence and characteristics of unsuspected neoplasia discovered in high-risk women undergoing risk reductive bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Int J Gynecol Cancer 26:1415–1420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Powell CB, Chen LM, McLennan J et al (2011) Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in BRCA mutation carriers: experience with a consecutive series of 111 patients using a standardized surgical-pathological protocol. Int J Gynecol Cancer 21:846–851PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  235. Pritt B, Mount SL, Cooper K et al (2006) Pseudoactinomycotic radiate granules of the gynaecological tract: review of a diagnostic pitfall. J Clin Pathol 59:17–20PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Przybycin CG, Kurman RJ, Ronnett BM et al (2010) Are all pelvic (nonuterine) serous carcinomas of tubal origin? Am J Surg Pathol 34:1407–1416PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  237. Quick CM, Ning G, Bijron J et al (2012) PAX2-null secretory cell outgrowths in the oviduct and their relationship to pelvic serous cancer. Mod Pathol 25:449–455PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  238. Rabban JT, Crawford B, Chen LM et al (2009a) Transitional cell metaplasia of fallopian tube fimbriae: a potential mimic of early tubal carcinoma in risk reduction salpingo-oophorectomies from women with BRCA mutations. Am J Surg Pathol 33:111–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Rabban JT, Krasik E, Chen LM et al (2009b) Multistep level sections to detect occult fallopian tube carcinoma in risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomies from women with BRCA mutations: implications for defining an optimal specimen dissection protocol. Am J Surg Pathol 33:1878–1885PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Rabban JT, Garg K, Crawford B et al (2014) Early detection of high-grade tubal serous carcinoma in women at low risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome by systematic examination of fallopian tubes incidentally removed during benign surgery. Am J Surg Pathol 38:729–742PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  241. Rabban JT, Vohra P, Zaloudek CJ (2015) Nongynecologic metastases to fallopian tube mucosa: a potential mimic of tubal high-grade serous carcinoma and benign tubal mucinous metaplasia or nonmucinous hyperplasia. Am J Surg Pathol 39:35–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Rabczynski J, Ziolkowski P (1999) Primary endometrioid carcinoma of fallopian tube. Clinicomorphologic study. Pathol Oncol Res 5:61–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Ramin SM, Ramin KD, Hemsell DL (1999) Fallopian tube prolapse after hysterectomy. South Med J 92:963–966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Randall S, Buckley CH, Fox H (1987) Placentation in the fallopian tube. Int J Gynecol Pathol 6:132–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Reitsma W, de Bock GH, Oosterwijk JC et al (2013) Support of the ‘fallopian tube hypothesis’ in a prospective series of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy specimens. Eur J Cancer 49:132–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Rhee DD, Wu ML (2006) Pulse granulomas detected in gallbladder, fallopian tube, and skin. Arch Pathol Lab Med 130:1839–1842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Ricciardi E, Tomao F, Aletti G et al (2017) Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women at higher risk of ovarian and breast cancer: a single institution prospective series. Anticancer Res 37:5241–5248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Riska A, Leminen A (2007) Updating on primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 86:1419–1426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Ritterhouse LL, Nowak JA, Strickland KC et al (2016) Morphologic correlates of molecular alterations in extrauterine Mullerian carcinomas. Mod Pathol 29:893–903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Robboy SJ, Taguchi O, Cunha GR (1982) Normal development of the human female reproductive tract and alterations resulting from experimental exposure to diethylstilbestrol. Hum Pathol 13:190–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Robey SS, Silva EG (1989) Epithelial hyperplasia of the fallopian tube. Its association with serous borderline tumors of the ovary. Int J Gynecol Pathol 8:214–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Roh MH, Kindelberger D, Crum CP (2009) Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and the dominant ovarian mass: clues to serous tumor origin? Am J Surg Pathol 33:376–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Rosen AC, Klein M, Hafner E et al (1999) Management and prognosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Austrian Cooperative Study Group for Fallopian Tube Carcinoma. Gynecol Obstet Investig 47:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Saffos RO, Rhatigan RM, Scully RE (1980) Metaplastic papillary tumor of the fallopian tube – a distinctive lesion of pregnancy. Am J Clin Pathol 74:232–236PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  255. Salvador S, Rempel A, Soslow RA et al (2008) Chromosomal instability in fallopian tube precursor lesions of serous carcinoma and frequent monoclonality of synchronous ovarian and fallopian tube mucosal serous carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 110:408–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Samaha M, Woodruff JD (1985) Paratubal cysts: frequency, histogenesis, and associated clinical features. Obstet Gynecol 65:691–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Sangoi AR, McKenney JK, Schwartz EJ et al (2009) Adenomatoid tumors of the female and male genital tracts: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 44 cases. Mod Pathol 22:1228–1235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Saracoglu FO, Mungan T, Tanzer F (1992) Salpingitis isthmica nodosa in infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Investig 34:202–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Sasano H, Sato S, Yajima A et al (1997) Adrenal rest tumor of the broad ligament: case report with immunohistochemical study of steroidogenic enzymes. Pathol Int 47:493–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Schaefer G (1970) Tuberculosis of the female genital tract. Clin Obstet Gynecol 13:965–998PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  261. Schiller HM, Silverberg SG (1971) Staging and prognosis in primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Cancer 28:389–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Schneider S, Heikaus S, Harter P et al (2017) Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma associated with extraovarian metastases. Int J Gynecol Cancer 27:444–451PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  263. Sebire NJ, Lindsay I, Fisher RA et al (2005) Overdiagnosis of complete and partial hydatidiform mole in tubal ectopic pregnancies. Int J Gynecol Pathol 24:260–264PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  264. Sedlis A (1978) Carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Surg Clin North Am 58:121–129PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  265. Seeber J, Reimer D, Muller-Holzner E et al (2008) Fallopian tube cancer associated with paraneoplastic dermatomyositis – asymptomatic multivisceral exacerbated dermatomyositis mimicking recurrent widespread malignant disease: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 29:168–170PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  266. Sehdev AS, Kurman RJ, Kuhn E et al (2010) Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma upregulates markers associated with high-grade serous carcinomas including Rsf-1 (HBXAP), cyclin E and fatty acid synthase. Mod Pathol 23:844–855PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Seidman JD (1994) Mucinous lesions of the fallopian tube. A report of seven cases. Am J Surg Pathol 18:1205–1212PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  268. Seidman JD (2015) Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma localizes to the tubal-peritoneal junction: a pivotal clue to the site of origin of extrauterine high-grade serous carcinoma (ovarian cancer). Int J Gynecol Pathol 34:112–120PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  269. Seidman JD, Woodburn R (2015) Pseudoxanthomatous salpingitis as an ex vivo model of fallopian tube serous carcinogenesis: a clinicopathologic study of 49 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 34:275–280PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  270. Seidman JD, Oberer S, Bitterman P et al (1993) Pathogenesis of pseudoxanthomatous salpingiosis. Mod Pathol 6:53–55PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  271. Seidman JD, Sherman ME, Bell KA et al (2002) Salpingitis, salpingoliths, and serous tumors of the ovaries: is there a connection? Int J Gynecol Pathol 21:101–107PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  272. Seidman JD, Zhao P, Yemelyanova A (2011) “Primary peritoneal” high-grade serous carcinoma is very likely metastatic from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma: assessing the new paradigm of ovarian and pelvic serous carcinogenesis and its implications for screening for ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 120:470–473PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  273. Seidman JD, Krishnan J, Yemelyanova A et al (2016) Incidental serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and non-neoplastic conditions of the fallopian tubes in grossly normal adnexa: a clinicopathologic study of 388 completely embedded cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 35:423–429PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  274. Shaw PA, Rouzbahman M, Pizer ES et al (2009) Candidate serous cancer precursors in fallopian tube epithelium of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Mod Pathol 22:1133–1138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Sherman ME, Piedmonte M, Mai PL et al (2014) Pathologic findings at risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy: primary results from Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial GOG-0199. J Clin Oncol 32:3275–3283PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Singh N, Gilks CB, Wilkinson N et al (2015) Assessment of a new system for primary site assignment in high-grade serous carcinoma of the fallopian tube, ovary, and peritoneum. Histopathology 67:331–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Skinnider BF, Young RH (2004) Infarcted adenomatoid tumor: a report of five cases of a facet of a benign neoplasm that may cause diagnostic difficulty. Am J Surg Pathol 28:77–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Snijders AM, Nowee ME, Fridlyand J et al (2003) Genome-wide-array-based comparative genomic hybridization reveals genetic homogeneity and frequent copy number increases encompassing CCNE1 in fallopian tube carcinoma. Oncogene 22:4281–4286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Snyder MJ, Bentley R, Robboy SJ (2006) Transtubal spread of serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: an underrecognized mechanism of metastasis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 25:155–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Society of Gynecologic Oncology (2017) Practice bulletin no 182: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 130:e110–e126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Soderstrom RM (1985) Sterilization failures and their causes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 152:395–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Song YS, Kang JS, Park MH (2005) Fallopian tube prolapse misdiagnosed as vault granulation tissue: a report of three cases. Pathol Res Pract 201:819–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Stewart SL, Wike JM, Foster SL et al (2007) The incidence of primary fallopian tube cancer in the United States. Gynecol Oncol 107:392–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Stewart CJ, Leung YC, Whitehouse A (2012) Fallopian tube metastases of non-gynaecological origin: a series of 20 cases emphasizing patterns of involvement including intra-epithelial spread. Histopathology 60:E106–E114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Stewart CJ, Doherty DA, Havlat M et al (2013) Transtubal spread of endometrial carcinoma: correlation of intra-luminal tumour cells with tumour grade, peritoneal fluid cytology, and extra-uterine metastasis. Pathology 45:382–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Stock RJ (1983) Histopathologic changes in fallopian tubes subsequent to sterilization procedures. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2:13–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Su YN, Cheng WF, Chen CA et al (1999) Pregnancy with primary tubal placental site trophoblastic tumor – a case report and literature review. Gynecol Oncol 73:322–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Sulak O, Malas MA, Esen K et al (2005) Uterine tube-ovary relationship and fimbrial development during the fetal period. Saudi Med J 26:1080–1084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Sweet RL, Blankfort-Doyle M, Robbie MO et al (1986) The occurrence of chlamydial and gonococcal salpingitis during the menstrual cycle. JAMA 255:2062–2064PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Tang S, Onuma K, Deb P et al (2012) Frequency of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in various gynecologic malignancies: a study of 300 consecutive cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 31:103–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Taylor HS, Vanden Heuvel GB, Igarashi P (1997) A conserved Hox axis in the mouse and human female reproductive system: late establishment and persistent adult expression of the Hoxa cluster genes. Biol Reprod 57:1338–1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Tone AA, Begley H, Sharma M et al (2008) Gene expression profiles of luteal phase fallopian tube epithelium from BRCA mutation carriers resemble high-grade serous carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 14:4067–4078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Tziortziotis DV, Bouros AC, Ziogas VS et al (1997) Clear cell hyperplasia of the fallopian tube epithelium associated with ectopic pregnancy: report of a case. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:79–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Ugur M, Turan C, Vicdan K et al (1996) Chronic ectopic pregnancy: a clinical analysis of 62 cases. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 36:186–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Van Den Eeden SK, Shan J, Bruce C et al (2005) Ectopic pregnancy rate and treatment utilization in a large managed care organization. Obstet Gynecol 105:1052–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Vang R, Medeiros LJ, Fuller GN et al (2001) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma involving the gynecologic tract: a review of 88 cases. Adv Anat Pathol 8:200–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Vang R, Visvanathan K, Gross A et al (2012) Validation of an algorithm for the diagnosis of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 31:243–253PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Vang R, Shih I, Kurman RJ (2013) Fallopian tube precursors of ovarian low- and high-grade serous neoplasms. Histopathology 62:44–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Vang R, Levine DA, Soslow RA et al (2016) Molecular alterations of TP53 are a defining feature of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma: a rereview of cases lacking TP53 mutations in the cancer genome atlas ovarian study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 35:48–55PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Vasquez G, Winston RM, Brosens IA (1983) Tubal mucosa and ectopic pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 90:468–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Verhage HG, Bareither ML, Jaffe RC et al (1979) Cyclic changes in ciliation, secretion and cell height of the oviductal epithelium in women. Am J Anat 156:505–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Visvanathan K, Vang R, Shaw P et al (2011) Diagnosis of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma based on morphologic and immunohistochemical features: a reproducibility study. Am J Surg Pathol 35:1766–1775PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Wachter DL, Wunsch PH, Hartmann A et al (2011) Adenomatoid tumors of the female and male genital tract. A comparative clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 47 cases emphasizing their site-specific morphologic diversity. Virchows Arch 458:593–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Wallace TM, Hart WR (1991) Acute chlamydial salpingitis with ascites and adnexal mass simulating a malignant neoplasm. Int J Gynecol Pathol 10:394–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Ward ME, Watt PJ, Robertson JN (1974) The human fallopian tube: a laboratory model for gonococcal infection. J Infect Dis 129:650–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Werness BA, Guccion JG (1997) Tumor of the broad ligament in von Hippel-Lindau disease of probable Mullerian origin. Int J Gynecol Pathol 16:282–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Wild RA, Albert RD, Zaino RJ et al (1988) Virilizing paraovarian tumors: a consequence of Nelson’s syndrome? Obstet Gynecol 71:1053–1056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Winkler B, Reumann W, Mitao M et al (1985) Immunoperoxidase localization of chlamydial antigens in acute salpingitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 152:275–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Yanai-Inbar I, Silverberg SG (2000) Mucosal epithelial proliferation of the fallopian tube: prevalence, clinical associations, and optimal strategy for histopathologic assessment. Int J Gynecol Pathol 19:139–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Yanai-Inbar I, Siriaunkgul S, Silverberg SG (1995) Mucosal epithelial proliferation of the fallopian tube: a particular association with ovarian serous tumor of low malignant potential? Int J Gynecol Pathol 14:107–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Yin Y, Ma L (2005) Development of the mammalian female reproductive tract. J Biochem 137:677–683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Young RH (2007) Neoplasms of the fallopian tube and broad ligament: a selective survey including historical perspective and emphasising recent developments. Pathology 39:112–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Zakhour M, Danovitch Y, Lester J et al (2016) Occult and subsequent cancer incidence following risk-reducing surgery in BRCA mutation carriers. Gynecol Oncol 143:231–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Zheng W, Sung CJ, Cao P et al (1997) Early occurrence and prognostic significance of p53 alteration in primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Gynecol Oncol 64:38–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Division of Gynecologic PathologyThe Johns Hopkins Medical InstitutionsBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations