Encyclopedia of Systems and Control

Living Edition
| Editors: John Baillieul, Tariq Samad

Classical Frequency-Domain Design Methods

  • J. David PowellEmail author
  • Christina M. Ivler
  • Abbas Emami-Naeini
Living reference work entry

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-5102-9_237-2


The design of feedback control systems in industry is often carried out using frequency-response (FR) methods. Frequency-response design is used primarily because it provides good designs in the face of uncertainty in the plant model. For example, for systems with poorly known or changing high-frequency resonances, we can temper the feedback design to alleviate the effects of those uncertainties. This tempering can be carried out more easily using FR design without extensive modeling of the uncertainties. The method is most effective for systems that are stable in open loop; however, it can also be applied to systems with instabilities. This article will introduce the reader to methods of design using lead and lag compensation. It will also cover the use of FR design to reduce steady-state errors and to improve robustness to uncertainties in high-frequency dynamics.


Frequency response Magnitude Phase Bode plot Stability Bandwidth Disturbance rejection bandwidth Phase margin Gain margin Crossover frequency Notch filter Gain stabilization Amplitude stabilization 
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  1. Franklin GF, Powell JD, Workman M (1998) Digital control of dynamic systems, 3rd edn. Ellis-Kagle Press, Half Moon BayzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Franklin GF, Powell JD, Emami-Naeini A (2019) Feedback control of dynamic systems, 8th edn. Pearson, Upper Saddle RiverzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. David Powell
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christina M. Ivler
    • 2
  • Abbas Emami-Naeini
    • 3
  1. 1.Aero/Astro DepartmentStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Shiley School of EngineeringUniversity of PortlandPortlandUSA
  3. 3.EE DepartmentStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • J. David Powell
    • 1
  1. 1.Aero/Astro DeptStanford UniversityStanfordUSA