Encyclopedia of Systems and Control

Living Edition
| Editors: John Baillieul, Tariq Samad

Frequency-Response and Frequency-Domain Models

  • Abbas Emami-NaeiniEmail author
  • Christina M. Ivler
  • J. David Powell
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-5102-9_236-2


A major advantage of using frequency response is the ease with which experimental information can be used for design purposes. Raw measurements of the output amplitude and phase of a plant undergoing a sinusoidal input excitation are sufficient to design a suitable feedback control. No intermediate processing of the data (such as finding poles and zeros or determining system matrices) is required to arrive at the system model. The wide availability of computational and system identification software tools has rendered this advantage less important now than it was years ago; however, for relatively simple systems, frequency response is often still the most cost-effective design method. The method is most effective for systems that are stable in open loop but can also be applied to unstable systems. Yet another advantage is that it is the easiest method to use for designing dynamic compensation as seen in the Cross-Reference article: [1] “Classical Frequency-Domain Design Methods”.


Frequency response Magnitude Phase Bode plot Stability Bandwidth Resonant peak Phase margin (PM) Gain margin (GM) Disturbance rejection bandwidth 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Franklin GF, Powell JD, Emami-Naeini A (2019) Feedback control of dynamic systems, 8th edn. Pearson Education, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abbas Emami-Naeini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christina M. Ivler
    • 2
  • J. David Powell
    • 3
  1. 1.Electrical EngineeringStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Shiley School of EngineeringUniversity of PortlandPortlandUSA
  3. 3.Aero/Astro DeptStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • J. David Powell
    • 1
  1. 1.Aero/Astro DeptStanford UniversityStanfordUSA