Encyclopedia of Systems and Control

Living Edition
| Editors: John Baillieul, Tariq Samad

Control of Additive Manufacturing

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-5102-9_100146-1


Control of additive manufacturing (AM) processes involves delivery of material and energy to precise locations at prescribed times during the manufacturing process. While each process is distinct and thus the challenges associated with designing control algorithms are unique, motion control and process control are the two primary objectives in all AM processes. Standard motion control strategies are used to position nozzles, motion stages, and steering mirrors. Model-free feedback and feedforward design strategies such as PID and iterative learning control are often used for process control of low-level process variables. On the other hand, geometry and part-level control strategies are designed through physics-based in-layer and layer-to-layer models built on momentum, mass, and/or energy balance equations.


3D printing; Motion control; Process control; Model predictive control; Physics-based modeling; Gray-box modeling; Iterative learning control; 2D systems; Feedback linearization 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. ASTM International (2012) Standard terminology for additive manufacturing technologies. Technical Report F2792-12aGoogle Scholar
  2. Cohen DL, Lipson H (2010) Geometric feedback control of discrete-deposition SFF systems. Rapid Prototyp J 16(5):377–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Craeghs T, Bechmann F, Berumen S, Kruth J-P (2010) Feedback control of layerwise laser melting using optical sensors. Phys Procedia 5:505–514; Laser assisted net shape engineering 6, Proceedings of the LANE 2010, Part 2. [Online]. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875389210005043
  4. Doumanidis C, Skordeli E (2000) Distributed-parameter modeling for geometry control of manufacturing processes with material deposition. J Dyn Syst Meas Control 122(1):71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Guo Y, Peters J, Oomen T, Mishra S (2018) Control-oriented models for ink-jet 3D printing. Mechatronics 56:211–219. [Online]. Available: http://www.science direct.com/science/article/pii/S0957415818300618
  6. Hoelzle DJ, Barton KL (2016) On spatial iterative learning control via 2-D convolution: stability analysis and computational efficiency. IEEE Trans Control Syst Technol 24(4):1504–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kwon KS, Kim W (2007) A waveform design method for high-speed inkjet printing based on self-sensing measurement. Sensors Actuators A Phys 140(1):75–83MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lu L, Zheng J, Mishra S (2015) A layer-to-layer model and feedback control of ink-jet 3-D printing. IEEE/ASME Trans Mechatron 20(3):1056–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Rawlings JB, Mayne DQ (2012) Model predictive control: theory and design. Nob Hill Publishing, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  10. Sammons PM, Bristow DA, Landers RG (2018) Two-dimensional modeling and system identification of the laser metal deposition process. J Dyn Syst Meas Control 141(2):021012 (10 pages)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Sammons PM, Gegel ML, Bristow DA, Landers RG (2019) Repetitive process control of additive manufacturing with application to laser metal deposition. IEEE Trans Control Syst Technol 27(2):566–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Wang Q, Li J, Gouge PMM, Nassar AR, Reutzel E (2016) Physics-based multivariable modeling and feedback linearization control of melt-pool geometry and temperature in directed energy deposition. J Manuf Sci Eng 139(2):021013(12 pages)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Wassink MG, Bosch N, Bosgra O, Koekebakker S (2005) Enabling higher jet frequencies for an inkjet printhead using iterative learning control. In: 2005 IEEE conference on control applications (CCA). IEEE, pp 791–796Google Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear EngineeringRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Dawn Tilbury
    • 1
  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering Department, University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA