Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

pp 2286-2319

Commercialisation of GM Crops : Comparison of Regulatory Frameworks

  • Wendy CraigAffiliated withBiosafety Unit, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) Email author 
  • , Siva Reddy VangaAffiliated withICGEB, Plant Biology: Plant Transformation Group
  • , Jorge Cabrera MedagliaAffiliated withCentre for International Sustainable Development Law, Lead Counsel on Biodiversity and Biosafety, Montreal Canada, University of Costa Rica

Definition of the Subject

This contribution describes and compares the regulation of GMOs and the underpinning legislative frameworks in selected countries from around the world. It also includes a description of the relevant international agreements related to biosafety and a description of the main characteristics and attributes of a modern biosafety regulatory framework in this area.


The rapid development and deployment of modern biotechnology in the last decades have made biosafety a critical issue. Although modern biotechnology has the potential of benefiting agricultural interests in developing countries as well as overall human welfare, living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology or genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remain a source of concern with regard to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, as well as to human health. ...

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