Dumps and Landfill
Areas of designated waste management; Designated discard or refuse zones (public or private); Managed sites for waste processing and/or surface construction
Landfills are designed and modified sites for recycling postconsumer waste. They are regulated depositories whose function is dictated by statutes. Regulation is concerned with issues of contamination and groundwater. Refuse must be buried. Landfills can also be considered structural features of the terrain as their design is aimed to level or reconfigure topography of a landform or landscape.
Dumps are unregulated loci for discard on a variety of scales. They may be open facilities initially and become landfills when regulatory mechanisms are imposed and implemented. Dumps are initially proposed as sites for refuse deposition, and they may be considered activity areas in an archaeological sense.
Since landfills are the products of relatively recent and large sediment redeposition (often with the use of heavy...
- Butzer, K. W., 2011. Geoarchaeology, climate change, sustainability: a Mediterranean perspective. In Brown, A. G., Bassell, L. S., and Butzer, K. W. (eds.), Geoarchaeology, Climate Change, and Sustainability. Boulder: Geological Society of America. GSA Special Paper 476, pp. 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cantwell, A.-M. E., and Wall, D. Z., 2001. Unearthing Gotham: The Archaeology of New York City. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Christaller, W., 1933. Die zentralen Orte in Süddeutchland: eine ökonomisch-geographische Untersuchung über die Gesetzmäßigkeit der Verbreitung und Entwicklung der Siedlungen mit städtischen Funktionen. Jena: Fischer.Google Scholar
- Harris, E. C., 1989. Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy, 2nd edn. London: Academic.Google Scholar
- King, T. F., 2013. Cultural Resource Laws and Practice, 4th edn. Lanham: AltaMira.Google Scholar
- Parker, J. H., 1874. The Archaeology of Rome. Oxford: James Parker and Co., Vol. 1.Google Scholar
- Schuldenrein, J., and Aiuvalasit, M., 2011. Urban archaeology and sustainability: a case study from New York City, USA. In Brown, A. G., Bassell, L. S., and Butzer, K. W. (eds.), Geoarchaeology, Climate Change, and Sustainability. Boulder: Geological Society of America. GSA Special Paper 476, pp. 153–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schuldenrein, J., and Hulse, E., 2013. Landfills and site formation at a multi-component stratified archaeological site in the upper west site of Manhattan Island, NYC. Paper Presented at the Metropolitan Chapter of the New York State Archaeological Association.Google Scholar
- Stein, J. K., 1992. Deciphering a Shell Midden. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Stone, B. D., Stanford, S. D., and Witte, R. W., 2002. Surficial geological map of northern New Jersey. Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2540-C. U.S. Geological Survey. Scale 1:100000.Google Scholar
- Zalasiewicz, J., Williams, M., Fortey, R., Smith, A., Barry, T. L., Coe, A. L., Bown, P. R., Rawson, P. F., Gale, A., Gibbard, P., Gregory, F. J., Hounslow, M. W., Kerr, A. C., Pearson, P., Knox, R., Powell, J., Waters, C., Marshall, J., Oates, M., and Stone, P., 2011. Stratigraphy of the Anthropocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 369(1938), 1036–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar