The Springer Index of Viruses

2011 Edition
| Editors: Christian Tidona, Gholamreza Darai

Arterivirus

Arteriviridae
  • Eric J. Snijder
  • Janneke J. M. Meulenberg
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-95919-1_7
  • 194 Downloads
Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus. Fig. 1

Negative staining of extracellular PRRSV particles. Length of bar [nm]: 20.[courtesy of J. Pol, ID-DLO, Lelystad, the Netherlands; reprinted with permission from Snijder EJ, Meulenberg JJM (1998) J Gen Virol 79:961–979]

Virion

Morphology:

icosahedral

Envelope:

yes

Diameter [nm]:

50–60

Length [nm]:

-

Structural components:

capsid, envelope

Buoyant density [g/mL]:

1.13–1.17

Additional information:

envelope lacks prominent surface projections; the above density is in sucrose

Genome

Nucleic acid:

RNA

Strandedness:

single-stranded

Polarity:

positive-sense

Configuration:

linear

Segments:

1

Size [kb]:

12.7–15.7

G + C content [%]:

48–53

Transcription units:

7–9

Additional information:

mRNAs form a nested set with common 5' and 3' sequences

Replication Strategy

Entry mechanism:

receptor-mediated endocytosis

Site of transcription:

cytoplasm

Transcriptase:

viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Site of genome replication:

cytoplasm

Replicase:

viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Replication intermediate:

genome-length minus strand RNA

Site of virion assembly:

smooth intracellular membranes

Egress mechanism:

budding into smooth intracellular membranes, transport to cell membrane, exocytosis

Additional information:

structural proteins are translated from a nested set of subgenomic mRNAs; replication-complex is associated with virus-induced double membrane structures

History

Year

Event/Discovery

Reference

1953

First documented outbreak of equine arteritis in Bucyrus, USA; isolation of equine arteritis virus (EAV)

Doll ER, et al. (1957) Cornell Vet 47:3–41

1960

Isolation of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) from laboratory mice

Riley V, et al. (1960) Science 132:545–547

1964

First outbreaks of simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) in macaques in USA and Russian research centers

Tauraso NM, et al. (1968) Am J Trop Med Hyg 17:422–431

1975

Characterization of the EAV genome as a single RNA molecule of positive polarity

van der Zeijst BAM, Horzinek MC (1975) Virology 68:418–425

1987

Emergence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in North America

Keffaber, KK (1989) Am Ass Swine Pract Newsletter 2:1–10

1990

All EAV mRNAs are shown to contain a common 5' leader sequence, which is derived from the 5' end of the genome

de Vries AAF, et al. (1990) Nucleic Acids Res 18:3241–3247

1991

Emergence of PRRS in Europe and isolation of the Lelystad strain of PRRSV

Wensvoort G, et al. (1991) Vet Quarterly 13:121–130

1991

Publication of the EAV genomic sequence; arteri- and coronaviruses are proposed to be evolutionarily related

den Boon JA, et al. (1991) J Virol 65:2910–2920

1992

Identification of the products of EAV ORFs 2b, 5, 6, and 7 as structural proteins

de Vries AAF, et al. (1992) J Virol 66:6294–6306

1993

Publication of the complete genomic sequence of a European PRRSV strain (Lelystad virus)

Meulenberg JJM, et al. (1993) Virology 192:62–72

1993

Publication of the genomic sequence of LDV (LDV-C strain)

Godeny EK, et al. (1993) Virology 194:585–596

1996

Classification of the families Arteriviridae and Coronaviridae in the novel order Nidovirales

Cavanagh D (1997) Arch Virol 142:629–633

1996

Identification of the products of PRRSV ORFs 3 and 4 as structural glycoproteins

van Nieuwstadt AP, et al. (1996) J Virol 70:4767–4772

1997

Description of an infectious cDNA clone for EAV

van Dinten LC, et al. (1997) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:991–996

1997

Publication of the sequence of the 3'-terminal region (6.3 kb) of the SHFV genome

Smith SL, et al. (1997) Gene 191:205–210

1998

Description of an infectious cDNA clone for PRRSV (Lelystad strain)

Meulenberg JJM, et al. (1998) J Virol 72:380–387

1998

The glycosylation state of LDV GP5 is reported to determine virus neutralization and neuropathogenicity

Li K, et al. (1998) Virology 242:239–245

1999

Publication of the complete genomic sequence of the North American PRRSV prototype strain VR2332

Nelsen CJ, et al. (1999) J Gen Virol 80:307–315

1999

Completion of the EAV replicase processing analysis

van Dinten LC, et al. (1999) J Virol 73:2027–2037

1999

Identification of the E protein as an additional envelope protein of EAV

Snijder EJ, et al. (1999) J Virol 73:6335–6345

Genome organization and expression of EAV and major differences (hatched) with other arteriviruses. Fig. 2

Names of EAV gene products, replicase cleavage sites, and subgenomic mRNAs are shown. [modified with permission from Snijder EJ, Meulenberg JJM (1998) J Gen Virol 79:961–979]

Genus Members

Species

Abbr.

Synonym(s)

Wild-type isolates

Host range

Membership status

Equine arteritis virus

EAV

 

EAV-Bucyrus

horses, donkeys

type species

Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

LDV

 

C, P

mice

approved member

Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

PRRSV

Swine infertility and respiratory syndrome virus

Lelystad virus, VR2332

pigs

approved member

Simian hemorrhagic fever virus

SHFV

 

LVR

monkeys (specific species)

approved member

Nucleotide Sequences

Genomic region

Virus species

Strain

Nucleotides

Accession number

Reference

complete genome

EAV

Bucyrus

12704

Y07862

den Boon JA, et al. (1991) J Virol 65:2910–2920

complete genome

LDV

C

14171

L13298

Godeny, EK (1993) Virology 194:585–596

complete genome

LDV

P

14104

U15146

Palmer GA, et al. (1995) Virology 209:637–642

complete genome

PRRSV

Lelystad virus

15098

M96262

Meulenberg JJM, et al. (1993) Virology 192:62–72

complete genome

PRRSV

VR2332

15409

PRU87392

Nelsen CJ, et al. (1999) J Virol 73:270–280

complete genome

PRRSV

16244B

15428

AF046869

Allende R, et al. (1999) J Gen Virol 80:307–315

3'-terminal region of genome

PRRSV

isolate 10

4920

L04493

Conzelmann KK, et al. (1993) Virology 193:329–339

3'-terminal region of genome

SHFV

LVR

6314

U63121

Smith SL, et al. (1997) Gene 191:205–210

Proteins

Protein

Abbr.

MW [kDa]

Time of expression

Accession numbers

Additional information

EAV non-structural protein 1

EAV nsp1

29

early

P89939

papainlike cysteine protease (PCP) in C-terminus; essential for subgenomic RNA synthesis

LDV/PRRSV non-structural protein 1 α

nsp1-α

18–20

early

Q83017, Q04561

homologous to N-terminus of EAV nsp1; contains additional PCP

LDV/PRRSV non-structural protein 1 β

nsp1-β

26–27

early

Q83017, Q04561

homologous to C-terminal half of EAV nsp1

non-structural protein 2

nsp2

61–131

early

P89939, Q83017, Q04561

membrane-associated, cysteine protease in N-terminus

non-structural protein 3

nsp3

23–25

early

P89939, Q83017, Q04561

hydrophobic, membrane-associated

non-structural protein 4

nsp4

21–22

early

P89939, Q83017, Q04561

chymotrypsin-like serine protease (main protease)

non-structural protein 5

nsp5

18–19

early

P89939, Q83017, Q04561

hydrophobic, membrane-associated

non-structural protein 6

nsp6

2

early

P89939, Q83017, Q04561

 

non-structural protein 7

nsp7

23–30

early

P89939, Q83017, Q04561

 

non-structural protein 8

nsp8

5–6

early

P89939, Q83017, Q04561

nsp8 is identical to the N-terminal domain of nsp9

non-structural protein 9

nsp9

75–76

early

P89939, Q06503, Q04561

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

non-structural protein 10

nsp10

47–51

early

P89939, Q06503, Q04561

contains putative Zn finger and ATPase/helicase

non-structural protein 11

nsp11

24–26

early

P89939, Q06503, Q04561

contains conserved nidovirus-specific domain

non-structural protein 12

nsp12

12–19

early

P89939, Q06503, Q04561

 

envelope protein

E

8–9

late

 

encoded by ORF2a (EAV, LDV), 2b (PRRSV), or 4a (SHFV)

glycoprotein 2b/2a/4b

GP2b, GP2a, GP4b

24–27

late

P28992, Q04566, Q83019, P89136

encoded by ORF2b (EAV, LDV), 2a (PRRSV), or 4b (SHFV)

glycoprotein 3/5

GP3, GP5

18–29

late

P28993, Q04567, Q83020, P89137

encoded by ORF3 (EAV, LDV, PRRSV) or ORF5 (SHFV)

glycoprotein 4/6

GP4, GP6

17–20

late

P28994, Q83021, 04568, P89138

encoded by ORF4 (EAV, LDV, PRRSV) or ORF6 (SHFV)

glycoprotein 5/7

GP5, GP7

22–31

late

P28995, Q83022, Q04569, P89139

encoded by ORF5 (EAV, LDV, PRRSV) or ORF7

membrane protein

M

18–19

late

P28991, Q04565, Q83023, Q87062

triple-spanning membrane protein

nucleocapsid protein

N

12–14

late

P19810, Q04558, Q89680, Q87063

basic, phosphorylated protein

Biology

Virus species

Permissive cell lines

Tissue tropism

Cytopathic effects

Additional information

EAV

BHK-21, RK-13, Vero, MA-104

macrophages

rounding of cells, detachment from surface

CPE develops in 16–20 hours

LDV

none; primary macrophages only

macrophages

too few cells infected to detect CPE

LDV is usually grown in mice

PRRSV

MA-104, MARC-145, CL2621, PAM

macrophages

rounding of cells, detachment from surface

PRRSV induces apoptosis

SHFV

MA-104

macrophages

rounding of cells, detachment from surface

 

Diseases

Disease

Causative agent

Affected organism

Characteristics

Route of transmission

Geographic distribution

equine arteritis

EAV

horses, donkeys

vascular lesions, anorexia, fever, edema, abortion

aerosols, sexual

world-wide

age-dependent poliomyelitis

LDV

specific (MuLV-positive) mice

paralysis due to destruction of motor neurons

trans-placental, contact

unclear

porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome

PRRSV

pigs

respiratory distress, reproductive failure

aerosols; sexual

world-wide

simian hemorrhagic fever

SHFV

macaques

fever, anorexia, dehydration, hemorrhagic lesions, death

aerosols; contact

occurs in primate centers

Vaccine Strains

Strain

Attenuation procedure

Additional information

Reference

EAV Arvac

266 serial passages on different cell lines

live attenuated vaccine

McCollum WH (1986) Am J Vet Res 47:1931–1934

EAV Artervac (based on EAV-Bucyrus)

formalin-inactivated vaccine

 

Fukunaga Y, et al. (1990) J Vet Med SerB 37:135–141

PRRSV RespPRRS (based on PRRSV VR2332)

serial passages on CL2621 cells

live attenuated vaccine

Gorcyca D, et al. (1995) Proc Am Ass Swine Pract, Omaha, NE, USA, pp 1–22

PRRSV PrimePacPRRS

serial passages in cell culture

live attenuated vaccine

Schering-Plough Animal Health, Elkhorn, NE, USA

PRRSV Suipravac

formalin-inactivated vaccine

 

Laboratorios Hipra, Amer (Girona), Spain

Vector Constructs

Vector

Backbone strain

Application

Insertion capacity [kb]

Additional information

Reference

pEAV030

EAV-Bucyrus

expression

unknown

infectious cDNA clone of the EAV RNA genome

van Dinten LC, et al. (1997) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA USA 94:991–996

pABV414

PRRSV-Lelystad virus

expression

unknown

infectious cDNA clone of the PRRSV RNA genome

Meulenberg JJM, et al. (1998) J Virol 72:380–387

References

  1. 1.
    Plagemann PGW, Moennig V (1992) Adv Vir Res 41:99–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Plagemann PGW (1996) In: Fields Virology, 3rd edn. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, pp 1105–1120Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    de Vries AAF, Horzinek MC, Rottier PJM, de Groot RJ (1997) Semin Virol 8:33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Snijder EJ, Meulenberg JJM (1998) J Gen Virol 79:961–979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brinton MA (1999) In: Encyclopedia of Virology, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Snijder EJ, Meulenberg JJM (2001) In: Fields Virology, 4th edition. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric J. Snijder
  • Janneke J. M. Meulenberg

There are no affiliations available