The Springer Index of Viruses

2011 Edition
| Editors: Christian Tidona, Gholamreza Darai

Alphacoronavirus

Coronaviridae
  • Nicola DecaroEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-95919-1_56

Virion

Morphology:

Spherical

Envelope:

Yes

Diameter (nm):

120–160

Length (nm):

 

Structural components:

Core, capsid, envelope

Buoyant density (g/mL):

1.23–1.24

Buoyant density method:

CsCl

Lipid composition:

Envelope lipids are derived from cytoplasma membrane of host cell

Additional information:

Surface projections made by the spike (S) protein

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV). Fig. 1

Transmission electron micrograph, negative staining of purified virus. Length of bar (nm): 100(Courtesy of Dr. A. Lavazza, Istituto Zooprofilattico di Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna, Italy)

Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma coronavirus replication cycle. Fig. 2

HE protein is present only in some Betacoronaviruses (Courtesy of Dr Viviana Tarallo, Department of Veterinary Public Health, Valenzano, Italy)

Genome organization of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammacoronavirus prototypes (A) and transcription map of Murine coronavirus MHV (B). Fig. 3

Numbers above bars ORFs, L leader, UTR untranslated region, Rep = replicase; (A)n poly A (Modified from Springer Index of Viruses, 1st edn. with permission)

Genome

Nucleic acid:

RNA

Strandedness:

 

Polarity:

 

Configuration:

 

Segment organization:

Segment no. 1 (kb):

27.1–29.4

 

One segment(s):

27.1–29.4 (kb) total (calculated)

G + C content (%):

37.6–41.8

mRNA transcripts:

7–10

Open reading frames:

7–10

Additional information:

The genome contains a leader at the 5' end and a poly(A) tail; genes are arranged in the order 5'-replicase-S-E-M-N-3', with a variable number of other genes that are believed to be non-structural

Replication

Entry mechanism:

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

Site of transcription:

Cytoplasm

Transcriptase:

Virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Site of genome replication:

Cytoplasm

Replicase:

Virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Replication intermediate:

Negative-strand RNA intermediate

Site of virion assembly:

Cytoplasm, the intermediate compartment

Egress mechanism:

Budding through the pre-Golgi and Golgi to the apical surfaces (TGEV)

Additional information:

Only the membrane (M) and envelope (E) proteins are required for the production of virus-like particles (VLPs)

History

Year of event

Event

References

1946

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) associated with enteritis in swine

Doyle and Hutchings (1946)

1965

Coronaviruses associated with common colds in humans

Tyrrell and Bynoe (1965)

1975

Radiolabeling (TGEV) clarifies fundamental coronavirus protein composition (S, N, M proteins)

Garwes and Pocock (1975)

1975

ICTV approves Coronaviridae family with one genus, Coronavirus

Tyrrell et al (1975)

1980

Demonstration that antibodies to feline enteric coronavirus enhance feline infectious peritonitis

Pedersen and Boyle (1980)

1989

Alternative model for transcription (TGEV): discontinuous transcription during negative strand synthesis

Sethna et al (1989)

1982

Amino peptidase N receptor for TGEV and HCoV-229E

Delmas et al (1992)

1996

ICTV recognises Coronaviridae as containing 2 genera: Coronavirus and Torovirus

Cavanagh et al (1997)

1996

ICTV recognises the order Nidovirales containing families Coronaviridae and Arteriviridae

Cavanagh et al (1997)

1999

Recombinant TGEV shows that S protein determines enteropathogenicity and virulence

Sanchez et al (1999)

2000

Engineering the largest RNA virus genome (TGEV) as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome

Almazan et al (2000)

2001

Full-length c-DNA of HCoV-229E amplified in a vaccinia virus eukaryotic vector

Thiel et al (2001)

2002

First crystal structure of a coronaviral (TGEV) protein (main protease)

Anand et al (2002)

2002

Human coronavirus NL63 isolated in the Netherlands

van der Hoek et al (2004)

2005

Design of wide-spectrum inhibitors of coronavirus main protease

Yang et al (2005)

2008

CCoV recognised as most likely ancestor of TGEV

Lorusso et al (2008)

2009

ICTV recognises the family Coronaviridae as containing two subfamilies, Coronavirinae and Torovirinae, with the former including three genera

Carstens (2010)

2009

According to the new taxonomy, genus Coronavirus is replaced by genera Alpha-, Beta- and Gammacoronavirus, corresponding to the old antigenic groups

Carstens (2010)

2009

TGEV, CCoV, FCoV and related viruses are recognised as host variants of a unique species, Alphacoronavirus-1, prototype of the genus Alphacoronavirus

Carstens (2010)

Genus Members

Species name

Synonyms

Wild-type strains/isolates

Natural host range

Experimental host range

Membership status

Alphacoronavirus-1

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/Porcine respiratory (TGEV/PRCoV); Canine coronavirus type I/type II (CCoV-I/CCoV-II); Feline coronavirus type I/type II (FCoV-I/FCoV-II); Flying squirrel coronavirus (FSCoV); Chinese bamboo rat coronavirus (CBRCoV); Lesser Indian civet coronavirus (LICCoV); Masked palm civet coronavirus (MPCCoV); Siberian weasel coronavirus (SWCoV); Yellow-bellied weasel coronavirus (YBWCoV); Raccoon dog coronavirus (RDCoV); Chinese ferret badger coronavirus DM95/2003 (CFBCoV-DM95/2003); Spotted hyena coronavirus

TGEV:Purdue, Miller; CCoV-I:Elmo/02; CCoV-II:I-71, CB/05, 341/05; FCoV-I:TN-446; FCoV-II: 79-1146

Swine (TGEV); dogs (CCoV); cats (FCoV); carnivores

 

Type species

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)

 

VR- 740

Humans

 

Approved member

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63)

 

SWE 10614/2004; Amsterdam 057; KR05-28; GRE 109/03

Humans

 

Approved member

Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1 (Mi-BatCoV-1)

 

61

Bats (Miniopterus spp.)

 

Approved member

Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 (Mi-BatCoV-HKU8)

 

AFCD77

Bats (Miniopterus spp.)

 

Approved member

Porcine epidemic diarrea virus (PEDV)

 

CV777

Swine (Sus scrofa)

 

approved member

Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2 (Rh-BatCoV-HKU2)

 

GD/430/2006

Bats

 

app`roved member

Scotophilus bat coronavirus 512 (Sc-BatCoV-512)

 

BtCoV/512/2005

Bats (Scotophilus spp.)

 

Approved member

Ferret coronavirus (FrCoV)

Ferret enteric coronavirus; Ferret systemic coronavirus (FrECoV; FrSCoV)

enteric strain MSU-2; systemic strain MSU-1

Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)

 

Tentative member

Harbor seal coronavirus 1

 

HS1

Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsii)

 

Tentative member

Mink coronavirus (MiCoV)

 

WD1127

Mink (Mustela vison)

 

Tentative member

Nucleotide Sequences

Genomic region

Species

Strain

Nucleotides

Access number

References

Complete genome

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV)

Purdue-Madrid

28,580

AJ271965

Almazan et al (2000)

Complete genome

HCoV-229E

 

20,580

AF304460

Thiel et al (2001)

Complete genome

HCoV-NL63

Amsterdam 057

27,550

DQ445911

Pyrc et al (2006)

Complete genome

Sc-BatCoV-512

BtCoV/512/2005

28,203

NC_009657

Tang et al (2006)

Complete genome

PEDV

LZC

28,042

EF185992

Cheng et al (2007), direct submission

Complete genome

Mi-BatCoV-HKU8

AFCD77

28,773

EU420139

Chu et al (2008)

Complete genome

Alphacoronavirus-1 (FCoV-I)

FCoV-I Black

29,256

EU186072

Tekes et al (2008)

Complete genome

Alphacoronavirus-1 (FCoV-II)

FCoV-II DF-2

28,632

DQ286389

Taboni et al (2007), direct submission

Complete genome

Alphacoronavirus-1 (CCoV-II)

CCoVII NTU336/F/2008

29,363

GQ477367

Chuang et al (2008), direct submission

genomic 3' end

Alphacoronavirus-1 (CCoV-II)

CCoV-II CB/05

8,745

DQ112226

Buonavoglia et al (2006)

Replicase (partial)

Mi-BatCoV-1

61

591

AY864198

Poon et al (2005)

Replicase (partial)

Alphacoronavirus-1 (CBRCoV)

Guangxi/B305/2005

275

EF584902

Dong et al (2007)

Replicase (partial)

Alphacoronavirus-1 (LICCoV)

Guangxi/D690/2005

486

EF584903

Dong et al (2007)

Replicase (partial)

Alphacoronavirus-1 (YBVCoV)

Guangxi/D726/2005

343

EF584904

Dong et al (2007)

Replicase (partial)

Alphacoronavirus-1 (MPCCoV)

Guangxi/D728/2005

486

EF584905

Dong et al (2007)

Replicase (partial)

Alphacoronavirus-1 (SWCoV)

Guangxi/D1000

486

EF584906

Dong et al (2007)

Replicase (partial)

FSCoV

Guangxi/E001/2006

486

EF584907

Dong et al (2007)

Complete genome

Rh-BatCoV-HKU2

GD/430/2006

27,165

EF203064

Lau et al (2007)

Replicase (partial)

Alphacoronavirus-1 (RDCoV)

GZ43/2003

5,274

EF192159

Vijaykrishna et al (2007)

from ORF3 to E gene

Alphacoronavirus-1 (CCoV-I)

CCoV-I Elmo/02

2,145

AY426983

Lorusso et al (2008)

Complete genome

MiCoV

WD1127

28,941

HM245925

Spiro et al (2010), direct submission

genomic 3' end

FrCoV

enteric strain MSU-2

8,618

GU338457

Wise et al (2010)

Replicase (partial)

Alphacoronavirus-1 (CFBCoV-DM95/2003)

DM95/2003

5,274

EF192160

Vijaykrishna et al (2007)

Replicase (partial)

Harbor seal coronavirus 1

HS1

208

FJ766501

Nollens et al (2010), direct submission

spike protein gene (partial)

Spotted hyena coronavirus

Es450a

429

DQ317972

East et al (2004)

Proteins

Protein name

Protein name abbreviation

Number of amino acids

Molecular weight (kDa)

Time of expression

Accession numbers

Additional information

Polyprotein 1ab (Replicase complex)

pp1ab

6632–6896

740–800

Throughout

NP_073549; YP_003766; ABQ57215; NP_598309; ABG47077; ACA52170; ADB28906; YP_003038530; CAB91143

Encoded by two ORFs, 1a and 1b; pseudoknot involved in frameshifting; cleaved to several products, including an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Spike glycoprotein

S

1222–1470

180–220

Throughout

ABG89317; CAA80971; AAR11077; ABG89335; YP_003038553; YP_001552234

Highly glycosylated; forms homotrimers; likely cleaved to S1 and S2 subunits in CCoV-I

Membrane protein

M

221–267

23–35

Throughout

ACN23167; ABU49663; ABQ57227; YP_001552239; ABG47081; YP_001718615; ABE97133; NP_073555; ADB28912; YP_003029902; ADD49352

N-linked or O-linked glycans; triple-spanning

Envelope protein

E

75–82

9–12

Throughout

ABU49662; ABG89314; ACJ63235; ACS44221; ACJ64179; ADI80524; ADD49351; ABQ57210; AAK38658; ABQ57234; YP_001351686; ABE97139; AAG48595

Essential for virion assembly; E plus M forms virus-like particles

Nucleocapsid protein

N

374–441

50–60

Throughout

ABQ57236; ACA52175; ABG47082; ABE97141; ADI80526; ACK77286; ABB90485; ACJ64190; ABO88144; ADC53234; ADD49353; ADC34660

Highly basic phosphoprotein; forms a helical nucleocapsid

Non-structural protein 3

ns3 (gp3)

207

28

Throughout

AY426983

Unique to CCoV-I (Geselavirus); gene located between S and 3a genes; N-glycosilated

Non-structural protein 3a

ns3a

60–94

7.8

Throughout

ACN79570; ABD97836; AAL89749; AAF02715; YP_003429311; ACJ64176; ABK79897

Unique to Geselavirus; located between S and E genes; non essential for replication; may be truncated in some strains

Non-structural protein 3b

ns3b

108–251

27.7–31

Throughout

ACN79567; ABG89332; ABG89311; ABQ57225; ADC67067; ADI80514; ABE97131; ABM64812; ADD26775; ACT10973; AAR88621; YP_001718606

ns3c in CCoV/FCoV; ns3 in HCoV-NL63/PEDV/bat Alphacoronaviruses; ns4 in HCoV-229E; non essential; may be truncated in some strains

CCoV/FCoV non-structural protein 3b

CCoV/FCoV ns3b

71–73

7.8

Throughout

ACT10972; YP_003029910; ACJ63244; AAR88614

Unique to CCoV/FCoV (also known as ns3x); Non essential for replication; may be truncated in some strains

Non-structural protein 7 (7a)

ns7 (7a)

78–105

9.1

Throughout

ACJ63238; CAA62202; ABG89313; ABG89307

Unique to Geselavirus; ns7a in FCoV/CCoV; non essential for replication; may be truncated in some strains

Non-structural protein 7b

ns7b

162–213

14

Throughout

ACJ63239; ACJ64183; CAA47250; CAA62193

Unique to FCoV/CCoV (Geselavirus); non essential for replication; may be truncated in some strains

BatCoV-HKU8 non-structural protein 7

BatCoV-HKU8 nsp7

248

28.5

Throughout

ACA52176; YP_001718617

Unique to Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8

BatCoV-HKU2 non-structural protein 7

BatCoV-HKU2 nsp7

99

11.8

Throughout

ABQ57213; ABQ57221; ABQ57229; YP_001552241

Unique to Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2

Biology

Species

Permissive cell lines

Tissue tropism

Cytopathic effects

Additional information

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV)

ST, PK15, LLC-PK1

Epithelium of enteric and respiratory tract

Cell lysis with little syncytia formation

Respiratory variants replicate poorly in gut

PEDV

Vero

Epithelium of the enteric and respiratory tract

Formation of large syncytia

High mortality produced by virulent strains

Alphacoronavirus-1 (FCoV)

NLFK, A72, fcwf-D, CRFK

Intestinal epithelium and lymph nodes

Cell rounding, focal detachment and lysis

Some strains of FCoV are more virulent; FCoV-I replicates at low efficiency in vitro

Alphacoronavirus-1 (FIPV)

NLFK, A72, fcwf-D, CRFK

Peritoneum, liver, lymphoid organs

Cell rounding, focal detachment and lysis

Antibody-dependent enhancement of infectivity

Alphacoronavirus-1 (CCoV)

CRFK, A72, ST

Epithelium of the intestines

Cell rounding, focal detachment and lysis

CCoV-I does not replicate in vitro; pantropic CCoV CB/05 infects internal organs

HCoV-229E

L132, MRC-5, IMHP

Upper respiratory tract

 

Some HCoV infect oligodendrocytes and neural cell

HCoV-NL63

LLC-MK2; Vero-B4; primary cultures of HAE

Upper and lower respiratory tract

Diffuse CPE with cell detachemnt and deterioration

 

Diseases

Disease

Causative agent

Affected organisms

Disease characteristics

Transmission route/vector

Treatment

Geographic distribution

Transmissible gastroenteritis

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV)

Domestic and wild pigs

Diarrhoea, high mortality in newborns

Faecal-oral

Only symptomatic

Worldwide

Swine respiratory disease

Alphacoronavirus-1 (PRCoV, respiratory variant of TGEV)

Domestic and wild pigs

Sneezing, coughing, nasal discharge

Aerosol

Only symptomatic

Worldwide

Porcine epidemic diarrhoea

PEDV

Swine

Diarrhoea, high mortality in weaning pigs

Faecal-oral

Only symptomatic

Europe, Asia, not North America

Feline enteritis

Alphacoronavirus-1 (FCoV)

Cats

Diarrhoea

Faecal-oral

Only symptomatic

Worldwide

Feline infectious peritonitis

Alphacoronavirus-1 (FIPV)

Cats

Peritonitis, granulomatous inflammation in multiple organs

Not transmissible (in-vivo FCoV variant)

Only symptomatic

Worldwide

Canine enteritis

Alphacoronavirus-1 (CCoV)

Dogs

Diarrhoea, some mortality in young pups

Faecal-oral

Only symptomatic

Worldwide

Canine pantropic coronavirosis

Alphacoronavirus-1 (pantropic CCoV)

Dogs

Lymphopenia, diarrhoea, fever, depression, mortality

Unknown, maybe faecal-oral

Only symptomatic

Europe

Human common cold

HCoV-229E

Humans

Common cold (sneezing, coughing, nasal discharge)

Aerosol

Only symptomatic

Worldwide

Human respiratory disease

HCoV-NL63

Humans

Fever, cough, coryza, sore throat, bronchiolitis, bronchitis, pneumonia and croup

Aerosol

Only symptomatic

Worldwide

Ferret epizootic catarrhal enteritis

FrCoV (FrECoV)

Ferrets

Diarrhoea

Faecal-oral

Only symptomatic

North America, Europe

Ferret systemic coronavirosis

FrCoV (FrSCoV)

Ferrets

FIP-like disease (dry form)

Unknown

Only symptomatic

North America, Europe

Mink epizootic catarrhal gastroenteritis

MiCoV

Mink

Diarrhoea, mortality

Faecal-oral

Only symptomatic

North America, Europe

Diagnosis

Method

Species

Sample material

Detection target

References

Monoclonal time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay

HCoV-229E

respiratory samples

Viral antigens

Hierholzer et al (1994)

nested PCR amplification of the spike protein gene

HCoV-229E

Respiratory samples

Viral RNA

Myint et al (1994)

L132 cell culture and indirect immunofluorescence assay with monoclonal antibodies

HCoV-229E

Respiratory samples

Viral antigens

Sizun et al (1998)

RT-PCR amplification of the nucleocapsid protein gene

HCoV-NL63

Respiratory samples

Viral RNA

Moes et al (2005)

RT-PCR amplification of the spike protein gene

HCoV-NL63

Respiratory samples

Viral RNA

Bastien et al (2005)

Direct immunofluorescence assay and HuH7 cell culture

HCoV-229E

Respiratory samples

Viral antigens

Freymuth et al (2006)

Microarray using standard amplification and hybridization techniques

HCoV-229E

Respiratory samples

Viral RNA

Lodes et al (2007)

RT-PCR amplification of the nucleocapsid protein gene

HCoV-229E

Respiratory samples

Viral RNA

Dominguez et al (2009)

Nested PCR amplification of the nucleocapsid protein gene

HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63

Respiratory samples

Viral RNA

Gaunt et al (2010)

Multiplex real-time RT-PCR amplification of the nucleocapsid protein gene

HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63

Respiratory samples

Viral RNA

Gaunt et al (2010)

Vero cell culture and direct immunofluorescence assay

PEDV

Faeces, intestine

Viral antigens

Kim and Chae (1999)

Monoclonal antibody-based immunohistochemistry

PEDV

Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gut sections

Viral antigens

Kim, et al (1999)

Duplex RT-PCR amplification of the spike protein gene

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV), PEDV

Faeces

Viral RNA

Kim et al (2001)

ELISA

PEDV

Faeces

Viral antigens

Rodák et al (2005)

Multiplex RT-PCR amplification of the spike protein gene

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV), PEDV

Faeces

Viral RNA

Song et al (2006)

Double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

PEDV

Faeces

Viral antigens

Sozzi et al (2010)

ST cell culture and immunofluorescence assay

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV)

Faeces, intestine; respiratory samples (PRCoV)

Viral antigens

McClurkin and Norman (1966)

Immunoelectron microsopy

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV)

Faeces, intestinal content

particle morphology

Saif et al (1977)

Immunofluorescence assay

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV)

Intestinal sections

Viral antigens

Solorzano et al (1978)

Sandwich ELISA

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV)

Faeces, intestinal content

Viral antigens

Bernard et al (1986)

Immunogold silver staining

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV)

Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gut sections

Viral antigens

Larochelle and Magar (1993)

Immunohistochemistry

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV)

Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gut sections

Viral antigens

Shoup et al (1996)

Nested PCR amplification of the spike protein gene discriminating TGEV from PRCoV

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV, PRCoV)

Faeces, intestinal content

faeces, intestinal content, respiratory samples

Kim et al (2000)

Real-time RT-PCR assay with LUX primer targeting the spike protein gene

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV)

Faeces, intestinal content

Viral RNA

Chen et al (2004)

Internally-controlled real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assay targeting the spike protein gene

Alphacoronavirus-1 (TGEV)

Faeces, intestinal content

Viral RNA

Vemulapalli et al (2009)

A-72 cell culture and immunofluorescence assay

Alphacoronavirus-1 (CCoV)

Faeces, intestinal content

Viral antigens

Keenan et al (1976)

Electron microscopy

Alphacoronavirus-1 (CCoV)

Faeces, intestibal content

particle morphology

Appel et al (1979)

Sandwich ELISA

Alphacoronavirus-1 (CCoV)

Faeces, intestinal content

Viral antigens

Tuchiya et al (1991)

Nested PCR amplification of the membrane protein gene

Alphacoronavirus-1 (CCoV)

Faeces, intestinal content

Viral RNA

Pratelli et al (1999)

Real-time RT-PCR amplification of the membrane protein gene

Alphacoronavirus-1 (CCoV)

Faeces, intestinal content

Viral RNA

Decaro et al (2004)

Genotype-specific real-time RT-PCR amplifications of the membrane protein gene discriminating CCoV-I and CCoV-II

Alphacoronavirus-1 (CCoV)

Faeces, intestinal content

Viral RNA

Decaro et al (2005)

Indirect immunofluorescence assay

Alphacoronavirus-1 (FIPV)

Serum

anti-viral antibodies

Pedersen (1976)

Immunfluorescence assay

Alphacoronavirus-1 (FCoV, FIPV)

Intestine (FCoV), internal organs (FIPV)

Viral antigens

Hoshino and Scott (1980)

Electron microscopy

Alphacoronavirus-1 (FCoV, FIPV)

Faeces, intestine (FCoV), internal organs (FIPV)

particle morphology

Hoshino and Scott (1980)

Immunohistochemistry

Alphacoronavirus-1 (FIPV)

Internal organs

Viral antigens

Boyle et al (1984)

CrFK cell culture and immunofluorescence assay

FCoV. FIPV

Faeces, intestine (FCoV); internal organs (FIPV)

Viral antigens

McKeirnan et al (1987)

RT-PCR amplification of the spike protein gene

Alphacoronavirus-1 (FCoV, FIPV)

Faeces, intestine (FCoV); internal organs (FIPV)

Viral RNA

Li and Scott (1994)

RT-PCR amplification of the 3'-untranslated region

Alphacoronavirus-1 (FCoV, FIPV)

Faeces, intestine (FCoV); internal oragns (FIPV)

Viral RNA

Herrewegh et al (1995)

Real-time RT-PCR amplification of the 3'-untranslated region

Alphacoronavirus-1 (FCoV, FIPV)

Faeces, intestine (FCoV); internal organs (FIPV)

Viral RNA

Gut et al (1999)

RT-PCR amplification of the subgenomic mRNA of the membrane protein gene

Alphacoronavirus-1 (FIPV)

Blood

Viral mRNA

Simons et al (2005)

Vaccine Strains

Strain

Attenuation process

Additional information

References

Alphacoronavirus-1 TGEV vaccine-Diamond

Passage in ST cells

MLV; limited efficacy

Moxley et al. (1989)

Alphacoronavirus-1 TGEV vaccine-Ambico

Passage at low pH in presence of enzymes

Oral MLV; limited efficacy

Lai et al (1991)

Alphacoronavirus-1 TGEV Nouzilly

Passage in cell culturess

Resists to proteases and acidity; limited efficacy

Aynaud et al (1991)

Alphacoronavirus-1 CCoV vaccine Insavc-1

Passage in cell culture

MLV; limited efficacy; post-vaccination adverse reactions reported

Horsburgh et al (1992)

Alphacoronavirus-1 CCoV vaccine TN449

Inactivated vaccine

Limited efficacy

Fulker et al (1995)

Alphacoronavirus-1 CCoV feline enteric coronavirus vaccine

Inactivated vaccine

Heterologous vaccine prepared with FECV; limited efficacy

Gill et al (1998)

Alphacoronavirus-1 FIPV temperature-sensitive vaccine strain DF2

Passage in cell culture

Temperature-sensitive MLV; limited efficacy

Addie et al (2009)

Vector Constructs

Vector name

Backbone strain

Application

Insertion capacity (kb)

Additional information

References

vHCoV-inf-1 and vHCoV-inf-2

HCoV-229E

Expression

27.3

Recombinant vaccinia virus containing the full-length genome of HCoV-229E

Thiel et al (2001)

TGEV M33 and M39

Alphacoronavirus-1 TGEV PUR46-MAD

Expression

5

Helper dependent expression system

Izeta et al (1999)

pBAC-TGEV(FL)

Alphacoronavirus-1 TGEV PUR46-MAD

Reverse genetics

28.7

Infectious bacterial artificial chromosome

Almazán et al (2000)

icTGEV

Alphacoronavirus-1 TGEV Purdue

Reverse genetics

28.5

Full-length genome infectious clone constructed through ligation of six inserts

Yount et al (2000)

pBRDI1

Alphacoronavirus-1 FCoV-II 79-1146

Reverse genetics

9–10

Used for targeted RNA recombination to obtain chimeric FIPV

Haijema et al (2003)

vrecFCoV

Alphacoronavirus-1 FCoV-I Black

Reverse genetics

26.3

Recombinant vaccinia virus containing the full-length genome of FCoV

Tekes et al (2008)

icNL63

HCoV-NL63

Reverse genetics

27.7

Full-length genome infectious clone constructed through ligation of five inserts

Donaldson et al (2008)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal Health and Well-beingValenzanoItaly