Nuclear Lipids and Their Metabolic and Signaling Properties

  • R. Ledeen
  • G. Wu
Reference work entry


Nuclei have a relative paucity of lipids, perhaps accounting for the early assumption that their role in that organelle is limited to providing structural support to the nuclear envelope. In addition to the growing awareness that lipids of this double membrane structure have dynamic signaling properties, biochemists and cell biologists now recognize that lipids also occur in endonuclear compartments where they exert an astounding array of signaling capabilities with profound influence on cellular functioning. Gone also is the concept of the nucleus as passive recipient of lipids that are synthesized elsewhere in the cell and imported, since numerous enzymes have been discovered that synthesize and catabolize lipids within the nucleus. Phosphatidylinositol is synthesized in extranuclear compartments and transferred to the nucleus where it is phosphorylated to phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate, a substrate for phospholipase C. The latter generates the two second messengers, inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, which draws protein kinase C to the nucleus and activates it; the polyunsaturated forms of diacylglycerol are especially active in that regard. Phosphatidylinositol bisphosophate can also react with phospholipase A2 to liberate arachidonic acid, which can in turn undergo conversion to eicosanoids within the nucleus. More saturated forms of diacylglycerol are formed by hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine, some of which are disaturated in terms of the aliphatic chains. Phosphatidylcholine is synthesized within the nucleus, as evidenced in the presence of the Kennedy pathway enzymes. The diacylglycerol form of signaling is terminated by diacylglycerol kinase, several isoforms of which occur in the nucleus. Sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin also have a prominent role in nuclear signaling, the main metabolic product being ceramide that is generated by sphingomyelinase. Evidence has suggested that the ratio of ceramide to diacylglycerol is a form of regulatory control critical for homeostatic properties of the nucleus. Sphingomyelin comprises a significant component of chromatin lipids and its variation in relation to cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine indicated that nuclear matrix lipids are metabolized independently of chromatin lipids. Current and prior studies suggest several key processes involving RNA and DNA reactivity that are dependent on these lipid-initiated events. Considerable interest has focused on inositides whose activities include promotion of transcription through neutralizing histone-mediated repression. These and other lipids occur in specles, the microdomains that are believed to contain molecules involved in splicing of pre-mRNA. Nuclei from mammalian cells all have the same general structure consisting of the double-membrane envelope and various less well-defined endonuclear compartments. The two membranes that make up the nuclear envelope are quite different in lipid composition and function: the outer membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and bears many similarities to the latter, whereas the inner membrane is unique and contains elements that mediate communication between nucleoplasm and the lumen of the nuclear envelope. The latter is a calcium storage site, continuous with that of the endoplasmic reticulum, from which calcium can be released in signaling mode to the nucleoplasm and to which excess calcium can be transferred via a sodium–calcium exchanger in conjunction with GM1 ganglioside. This was shown to exert an important neuroprotective function in neural cells. GM1 and GD1a are the primary species of gangliosides found in the nuclear envelope; those together with GD3 are also present in some endonuclear domains. These ganglioside characteristics of the nucleus were observed in neural cells of various types and in certain nonneural cells as well.


Nuclear Envelope Nuclear Matrix Nuclear Pore Complex Cerebellar Granule Neuron Inositol Trisphosphate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:


cerebellar granule neurons






diacylglycerol kinase


endoplasmic reticulum


inner nuclear membrane


inositol trisphosphate


sodium–calcium exchanger


nuclear envelope


outer nuclear membrane


postaglandin H Synthase


PtdIns(4,5)P2 3-kinase


phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C




phospholipase A2




phospholipase C


phospholipase D








phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate


phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate


phosphatidic acid








sphingomyelinase. Nomenclature of individual phospholipids is in comformity with the recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Commission on Nomenclature of Lipids. Ganglioside nomenclature is that of the JCBN recommendations [Eur. J. Biochem. 257: 293–298 (1998)]


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

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  • R. Ledeen
  • G. Wu

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