Anandamide and Other Acylethanolamides

  • S. Petrosino
  • V. Di Marzo
Reference work entry


Fatty acid ethanolamides, also known as N-acylethanolamines or acylethanolamides (AEs), have been known as naturally occurring lipids in animals and plants since the 1950s. Interest in their biological function and pharmacology in the central nervous system was revived after the identification of one of them, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA), as the first endogenous ligand of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, the most abundant G-protein-coupled receptors in the mammalian brain. Next came the discoveries that some AEs can also activate peroxisome-proliferator-activating receptors as well as transient receptor potential vanilloid type channels. The regulation and major known biological functions of AEA and other AEs in the nervous system are reviewed in this chapter.


Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type Rostral Ventromedial Medulla TRPV1 Receptor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are grateful to Epitech group S.r.l. for continued support.


  1. Ade KK, Lovinger DM. 2007. Anandamide regulates postnatal development of long-term synaptic plasticity in the rat dorsolateral striatum. J Neurosci 27: 2403–2409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adermark L, Lovinger DM. 2007. Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling at striatal synapses requires a regulated postsynaptic release step. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 20564–20569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Agarwal N, Pacher P, Tegeder I, Amaya F, Constantin CE, et al. 2007. Cannabinoids mediate analgesia largely via peripheral type 1 cannabinoid receptors in nociceptors. Nat Neurosci 10: 870–879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahern GP. 2003. Activation of TRPV1 by the satiety factor oleoylethanolamide. J Biol Chem 278: 30429–30434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aloe L, Leon A, Levi-Montalcini R. 1993. A proposed autacoid mechanism controlling mastocyte behaviour. Agents Actions 39: 145–147.Google Scholar
  6. Andersson M, Jacobsson SO, Jonsson KO, Tiger G, Fowler CJ. 2000. Neurotoxicity of glutamate in chick telencephalon neurons: Reduction of toxicity by preincubation with carbachol, but not by the endogenous fatty acid amides anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide. Arch Toxicol 74: 161–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Artmann A, Petersen G, Hellgren LI, Boberg J, Skonberg C, et al. 2008. Influence of dietary fatty acids on endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine levels in rat brain, liver and small intestine. Biochim Biophys Acta 1781: 200–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Astarita G, Rourke BC, Andersen JB, Fu J, Kim JH, et al. 2006. Postprandial increase of oleoylethanolamide mobilization in small intestine of the Burmese python (Python molurus). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290: R1407–R1412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Aviello G, Matias M, Capasso R, Petrosino S, Borrelli F, et al. 2008. Inhibitory effect of the anorexic compound oleoylethanolamide on gastric emptying in control and overweight mice 86: 413-422.Google Scholar
  10. Bachur NRr, Masek K, Melmon KL, Udenfriend S. 1965. Fatty acid amides of ethanolamine in mammalian tissues. J Biol Chem 240: 1019–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bensaid M, Gary-Bobo M, Esclangon A, Maffrand JP, Le Fur G, et al. 2003. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 increases Acrp30 mRNA expression in adipose tissue of obese fa/fa rats and in cultured adipocyte cells. Mol Pharmacol 63: 908–914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Berger C, Schmid PC, Schabitz WR, Wolf M, Schwab S, et al. 2004. Massive accumulation of N-acylethanolamines after stroke. Cell signalling in acute cerebral ischemia? J Neurochem 88: 1159–1167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Berrendero F, Romero J, Garcia-Gil L, Suarez I, De la Cruz P, et al. 1998. Changes in cannabinoid receptor binding and mRNA levels in several brain regions of aged rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 1407: 205–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Besson VC, Chen XR, Plotkine M, Marchand-Verrecchia C. 2005. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist, exerts neuroprotective effects in traumatic brain injury. Neurosci Lett 388: 7–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bisogno T, Delton-Vandenbroucke I, Milone A, Lagarde M, Di Marzo V. 1999. Biosynthesis and inactivation of N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine in bovine retina. Arch Biochem Biophys 370: 300–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bisogno T, Di Marzo V. 2007. Short- and long-term plasticity of the endocannabinoid system in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Pharmacol Res 56: 428–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bisogno T, Maurelli S, Melck D, De Petrocellis L, Di Marzo V. 1997. Biosynthesis, uptake, and degradation of anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide in leukocytes. J Biol Chem 272: 3315–3323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bordet R, Ouk T, Petrault O, Gelé P, Gautier S, et al. 2006. PPAR: A new pharmacological target for neuroprotection in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. Biochem Soc Trans 34: 1341–1346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bouaboula M, Hilairet S, Marchand J, Fajas L, Le Fur G, et al. 2005. Anandamide induced PPARgamma transcriptional activation and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Eur J Pharmacol 517: 174–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Breivogel CS, Griffin G, Di Marzo V, Martin BR. 2001. Evidence for a new G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor in mouse brain. Mol Pharmacol 60: 155–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Burdyga G, Lal S, Varro A, Dimaline R, Thompson DG, et al. 2004. Expression of cannabinoid CB1 receptors by vagal afferent neurons is inhibited by cholecystokinin. J Neurosi 24: 2708–2715.Google Scholar
  22. Butt C, Alptekin A, Shippenberg T, Oz M. 2008. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function in mouse thalamic synaptosomes. J Neurochem 105: 1235-1243.Google Scholar
  23. Cabranes A, Venderova K, de Lago E, Fezza F, Sánchez A, et al. 2005. Decreased endocannabinoid levels in the brain and beneficial effects of agents activating cannabinoid and/or vanilloid receptors in a rat model of multiple sclerosis. Neurobiol Dis 20: 207–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cani PD, Montoya ML, Neyrinck AM, Delzenne NM, Lambert DM. 2004. Potential modulation of plasma ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 by anorexigenic cannabinoid compounds, SR141716A (rimonabant) and oleoylethanolamide. Br J Nutr 92: 757–761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Capasso R, Matias I, Lutz B, Borrelli F, Capasso F, et al. 2005. Fatty acid amide hydrolase controls mouse intestinal motility in vivo. Gastroenterology 129: 941–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M, Rosen TA, Levine JD, et al. 1997. The capsaicin receptor: A heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature 389: 816–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cavuoto P, McAinch AJ, Hatzinikolas G, Janovská A, Game P, et al. 2007. The expression of receptors for endocannabinoids in human and rodent skeletal muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 364: 105–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Centonze D, Finazzi-Agrò A, Bernardi G, Maccarrone M. 2007. The endocannabinoid system in targeting inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases. Trends Pharmacol Sci 28: 180–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chemin J, Monteil A, Perez-Reyes E, Nargeot J, Lory P. 2001. Direct inhibition of T-type calcium channels by the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. EMBO J 20: 7033–7040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chemin J, Nargeot J, Lory P. 2007. Chemical determinants involved in anandamide-induced inhibition of T-type calcium channels. J Biol Chem 282: 2314–2323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chen XR, Besson VC, Palmier B, Garcia Y, Plotkine M, et al. 2007. Neurological recovery-promoting, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects afforded by fenofibrate, a PPAR alpha agonist, in traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 24: 1119–1131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chevaleyre V, Takahashi KA, Castillo PE. 2006. Endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic plasticity in the CNS. Annu Rev Neurosci 29: 37–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Collino M, Aragno M, Mastrocola R, Benetti E, Gallicchio M, et al. 2006. Oxidative stress and inflammatory response evoked by transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion: Effects of the PPAR-alpha agonist WY14643. Free Radic Biol Med 41: 579–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cota D, Marsicano G, Tschop M, Grubler Y, Flachskamm C, et al. 2003. The endogenous cannabinoid system affects energy balance via central orexigenic drive and peripheral lipogenesis. J Clin Invest 112: 423–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Coutts AA, Izzo AA. 2004. The gastrointestinal pharmacology of cannabinoids: An update. Curr Opin Pharmacol 4: 572–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cravatt BF, Giang DK, Mayfield SP, Boger DL, Lerner RA, et al. 1996. Molecular characterization of an enzyme that degrades neuromodulatory fatty-acid amides. Nature 384: 83–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cristino L, Starowicz K, De Petrocellis L, Morishita J, Ueda N, et al. 2008. Immunohistochemical localization of anabolic and catabolic enzymes for anandamide and other putative endovanilloids in the hippocampus and cerebellar cortex of the mouse brain. Neuroscience 151: 955–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. D’Agostino G, La Rana G, Russo R, Sasso O, Iacono A, et al. 2007. Acute intracerebroventricular administration of palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist, modulates carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 322: 1137–1143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Darmani NA, Izzo AA, Degenhardt B, Valenti M, Scaglione G, et al. 2005. Involvement of the cannabimimetic compound, N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine, in inflammatory and neuropathic conditions: Review of the available pre-clinical data, and first human studies. Neuropharmacology 48: 1154–1163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. De Petrocellis L, Bisogno T, Maccarrone M, Davis JB, Finazzi-Agro A, et al. 2001. The activity of anandamide at vanilloid VR1 receptors requires facilitated transport across the cell membrane and is limited by intracellular metabolism. J Biol Chem 276: 12856–12863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. De Petrocellis L, Orlando P, Di Marzo V. 1995. Anandamide, an endogenous cannabinomimetic substance, modulates rat brain protein kinase C in vitro. Biochem Mol Biol Int 36: 1127–1133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. De Petrocellis L, Starowicz K, Moriello AS, Vivese M, Orlando P, et al. 2007. Regulation of transient receptor potential channels of melastatin type 8 (TRPM8): Effect of cAMP, cannabinoid CB(1) receptors and endovanilloids. Exp Cell Res 313: 1911–1920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. De Petrocellis L, Vellani V, Schiano Morello A, Marini P, Magherini PC, et al. 2008. Plant-derived cannabinoids modulate the activity of transient receptor potential channels of ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1) and melastatin type-8 (TRPM-8). J Pharmacol Exp Ther 325: 1007-1015.Google Scholar
  44. Degenhardt BF, Darmani NA, Johnson JC, Towns LC, Rhodes DC, et al. 2007. Role of osteopathic manipulative treatment in altering pain biomarkers: A pilot study. J Am Osteopath Assoc 107: 387–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Degn M, Lambertsen KL, Petersen G, Meldgaard M, Artmann A, et al. 2007. Changes in brain levels of N-acylethanolamines and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in focal cerebral ischemia in mice. J Neurochem 103: 1907–1916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Deutsch DG, Glaser ST, Howell JM, Kunz JS, Puffenbarger RA, et al. 2001. The cellular uptake of anandamide is coupled to its breakdown by fatty-acid amide hydrolase. J Biol Chem 276: 6967–6973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Devane WA, Dysarz FA III, Johnson MR, Melvin LS, Howlett AC. 1988. Determination and characterization of a cannabinoid receptor in rat brain. Mol Pharmacol 34: 605–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Devane WA, Hanus L, Breuer A, Pertwee RG, Stevenson LA, et al. 1992. Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Science 258: 1946–1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Di Marzo V, Bisogno T, De Petrocellis L. 2001b. Anandamide: Some like it hot. Trends Pharmacol Sci 22: 346–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Di Marzo V, Breivogel CS, Tao Q, Bridgen DT, Razdan RK, et al. 2000a. Levels, metabolism, and pharmacological activity of anandamide in CB(1) cannabinoid receptor knockout mice: Evidence for non-CB(1), non-CB(2) receptor-mediated actions of anandamide in mouse brain. J Neurochem 75: 2434–2444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Di Marzo V, Breivogel C, Bisogno T, Melck D, Patrick G, et al. 2000b. Neurobehavioral activity in mice of N-vanillyl-arachidonyl-amide. Eur J Pharmacol 406: 363–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Di Marzo V, Capasso R, Matias I, Aviello G, Petrosino S, et al. 2008. The role of endocannabinoids in the regulation of gastric emptying: Alterations in mice fed a high-fat diet. Br J Pharmacol 153: 1272–1280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Di Marzo V, De Petrocellis L. 2006. Non-CB1, non-CB2 receptors for endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids: The Brain and Body’s Marijuana and Beyond. Onaivi ES, Sugiura T, Di Marzo V, editors. CRC Taylor and Francis; London: pp. 151–174.Google Scholar
  54. Di Marzo V, Fontana A, Cadas H, Schinelli S, Cimino G, et al. 1994. Formation and inactivation of endogenous cannabinoid anandamide in central neurons. Nature 372: 686–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Di Marzo V, Goparaju SK, Wang L, Liu J, Batkai S, et al. 2001c. Leptin-regulated endocannabinoids are involved in maintaining food intake. Nature 410: 822–825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Di Marzo V, Matias I. 2005. Endocannabinoid control of food intake and energy balance. Nat Neurosci 8: 585–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Di Marzo V, Melck D, Orlando P, Bisogno T, Zagoory O, et al. 2001a. Palmitoylethanolamide inhibits the expression of fatty acid amide hydrolase and enhances the anti-proliferative effect of anandamide in human breast cancer cells. Biochem J 358: 249–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Di Marzo V, Petrosino S. 2007. Endocannabinoids and the regulation of their levels in health and disease. Curr Opin Lipidol 18: 129–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Di S, Malcher-Lopes R, Halmos KC, Tasker JG. 2003. Nongenomic glucocorticoid inhibition via endocannabinoid release in the hypothalamus: A fast feedback mechanism. J Neurosci 23: 4850–4857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Egertová M, Cravatt BF, Elphick MR. 2003. Comparative analysis of fatty acid amide hydrolase and cb(1) cannabinoid receptor expression in the mouse brain: Evidence of a widespread role for fatty acid amide hydrolase in regulation of endocannabinoid signaling. Neuroscience 119: 481–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Egertová M, Simon GM, Cravatt BF, Elphick MR. 2008. Localization of N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) expression in mouse brain: A new perspective on N-acylethanolamines as neural signaling molecules. J Comp Neurol 506: 604–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Engeli S, Bohnke J, Feldpausch M, Gorzelniak K, Janke J, et al. 2005. Activation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity. Diabetes 54: 2838–2843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Evans RM, Scott RH, Ross RA. 2007. Chronic exposure of sensory neurones to increased levels of nerve growth factor modulates CB1/TRPV1 receptor crosstalk. Br J Pharmacol 152: 404–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Fan P. 1995. Cannabinoid agonists inhibit the activation of 5-HT3 receptors in rat nodose ganglion neurons. J Neurophysiol 73: 907–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Farquhar-Smith WP, Jaggar SI, Rice AS. 2002. Attenuation of nerve growth factor-induced visceral hyperalgesia via cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2)-like receptors. Pain 97: 11–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fowler CJ. 2003. Plant-derived, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids as neuroprotective agents. Non-psychoactive cannabinoids, ‘entourage’ compounds and inhibitors of N-acyl ethanolamine breakdown as therapeutic strategies to avoid pyschotropic effects. Brain Res Rev 41: 26–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Franklin A, Parmentier-Batteur S, Walter L, Greenberg DA, Stella N. 2003. Palmitoylethanolamide increases after focal cerebral ischemia and potentiates microglial cell motility. J Neurosci 23: 7767–7775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fu J, Astarita G, Gaetani S, Kim J, Cravatt BF, et al. 2007. Food intake regulates oleoylethanolamide formation and degradation in the proximal small intestine. J Biol Chem 282: 1518–1528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Fu J, Gaetani S, Oveisi F, Lo Verme J, Serrano A, et al. 2003. Oleylethanolamide regulates feeding and body weight through activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR-alpha. Nature 425: 90–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Giang DK, Cravatt BF. 1997. Molecular characterization of human and mouse fatty acid amide hydrolases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 2238–2242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gomez R, Navarro M, Ferrer B, Trigo JM, Bilbao A, et al. 2002. A peripheral mechanism for CB1 cannabinoid receptor-dependent modulation of feeding. J Neurosci 22: 9612–9617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Gulyas AI, Cravatt BF, Bracey MH, Dinh TP, Piomelli D, et al. 2004. Segregation of two endocannabinoid-hydrolyzing enzymes into pre- and postsynaptic compartments in the rat hippocampus, cerebellum and amygdala. Eur J Neurosci 20: 441–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hájos N, Ledent C, Freund TF. 2001. Novel cannabinoid-sensitive receptor mediates inhibition of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Neuroscience 106: 1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hansen HS, Moesgaard B, Petersen G, Hansen HH. 2002. Putative neuroprotective actions of N-acyl-ethanolamines. Pharmacol Ther 95: 119–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hanus L, Gopher A, Almog S, Mechoulam R. 1993. Two new unsaturated fatty acid ethanolamides in brain that bind to the cannabinoid receptor. J Med Chem 36: 3032–3034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hejazi N, Zhou C, Oz M, Sun H, Ye JH, et al. 2006. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and endogenous cannabinoid anandamide directly potentiate the function of glycine receptors. Mol Pharmacol 69: 991–997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Hermann H, De Petrocellis L, Bisogno T, Schiano Moriello A, Lutz B, et al. 2003. Dual effect of cannabinoid CB1 receptor stimulation on a vanilloid VR1 receptor-mediated response. Cell Mol Life Sci 60: 607–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Hillard CJ, Edgemond WS, Jarrahian A, Campbell WB. 1997. Accumulation of N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) into cerebellar granule cells occurs via facilitated diffusion. J Neurochem 69: 631–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hillard CJ, Shi L, Tuniki VR, Falck JR, Campbell WB. 2007. Studies of anandamide accumulation inhibitors in cerebellar granule neurons: Comparison to inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase. J Mol Neurosi 33: 18–24.Google Scholar
  80. Hohmann AG, Suplita RL II. 2006. Endocannabinoid mechanisms of pain modulation. AAPS J 8: E693–E708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Horvath G, Kekesi G, Nagy E, Benedek G. 2008. The role of TRPV1 receptors in the antinociceptive effect of anandamide at spinal level. Pain 134: 277–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Howlett AC. 2005. Cannabinoid receptor signaling. Handb Exp Pharmacol 168: 53–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Jacobsson SO, Fowler CJ. 2001. Characterization of palmitoylethanolamide transport in mouse Neuro-2a neuroblastoma and rat RBL-2H3 basophilic leukaemia cells: Comparison with anandamide. Br J Pharmacol 132: 1743–1754.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Járai Z, Wagner JA, Varga K, Lake KD, Compton DR, et al. 1999. Cannabinoid-induced mesenteric vasodilation through an endothelial site distinct from CB1 or CB2 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 14136–14141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Jhaveri MD, Richardson D, Kendall DA, Barrett DA, Chapman V. 2006. Analgesic effects of fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition in a rat model of neuropathic pain. J Neurosci 26: 13318–13327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Jhaveri MD, Richardson D, Chapman V. 2007. Endocannabinoid metabolism and uptake: Novel targets for neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Br J Pharmacol 152: 624–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Jo YH, Chen YJ, Chua SC Jr, Talmage DA, Role LW. 2005. Integration of endocannabinoid and leptin signaling in an appetite-related neural circuit. Neuron 48: 1055–1066.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Johns DG, Behm DJ, Walker DJ, Ao Z, Shapland EM, et al. 2007. The novel endocannabinoid receptor GPR55 is activated by atypical cannabinoids but does not mediate their vasodilator effects. Br J Pharmacol 152: 825–831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Jordt SE, Julius D. 2002. Molecular basis for species-specific sensitivity to “hot” chili peppers. Cell 108: 421–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kapadia R, Yi JH, Vemuganti R. 2008. Mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions of PPAR-gamma agonists. Front Biosci 13: 1813–1826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kim SR, Chung YC, Chung ES, Park KW, Won SY, et al. 2007. Roles of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 and cannabinoid type 1 receptors in the brain: Neuroprotection versus neurotoxicity. Mol Neurobiol 35: 245–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kirkham TC, Williams CM, Fezza F, Di Marzo V. 2002. Endocannabinoid levels in rat limbic forebrain and hypothalamus in relation to fasting, feeding and satiation: Stimulation of eating by 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. Br J Pharmacol 136: 550–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Kiss Z. 1999. Anandamide stimulates phospholipase D activity in PC12 cells but not in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. FEBS Lett 447: 209–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Klein TW. 2005. Cannabinoid-based drugs as anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Nat Rev Immunol 5: 400–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kola B, Hubina E, Tucci SA, Kirkham TC, Garcia EA, et al. 2005. Cannabinoids and ghrelin have both central and peripheral metabolic and cardiac effects via AMP-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem 280: 25196–25201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kreisler A, Gelé P, Wiart JF, Lhermitte M, Destée A, et al. 2007. Lipid-lowering drugs in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease: Fenofibrate has a neuroprotective effect, whereas bezafibrate and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors do not. Brain Res 1135: 77–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kreitzer AC, Regehr WG. 2001. Retrograde inhibition of presynaptic calcium influx by endogenous cannabinoids at excitatory synapses onto Purkinje cells. Neuron 29: 717–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Lambert DM, Vandevoorde S, Diependaele G, Govaerts SJ, Robert AR. 2001. Anticonvulsant activity of N-palmitoylethanolamide, a putative endocannabinoid, in mice. Epilepsia 42: 321–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Lambert DM, Vandevoorde S, Jonsson KO, Fowler CJ. 2002. The palmitoylethanolamide family: A new class of anti-inflammatory agents? Curr Med Chem 9: 663–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lastres-Becker I, de Miguel R, De Petrocellis L, Makriyannis A, Di Marzo V, et al. 2003. Compounds acting at the endocannabinoid and/or endovanilloid systems reduce hyperkinesia in a rat model of Huntington’s disease. J Neurochem 84: 1097–1109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Lee J, Di Marzo V, Brotchie JM. 2006. A role for vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and endocannabinnoid signalling in the regulation of spontaneous and l-DOPA induced locomotion in normal and reserpine-treated rats. Neuropharmacology 51: 557–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Leung D, Saghatelian A, Simon GM, Cravatt BF. 2006. Inactivation of N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D reveals multiple mechanisms for the biosynthesis of endocannabinoids. Biochemistry 45: 4720–4726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Ligresti A, Morera E, Stelt M, Van Der Monory K, Lutz B, et al. 2004. Further evidence for the existence of a specific process for the membrane transport of anandamide. Biochem J 380: 265–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Liu J, Wang L, Harvey-White J, Huang BX, Kim HY, et al. 2008. Multiple pathways involved in the biosynthesis of anandamide. Neuropharmacology 54: 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Liu J, Wang L, Harvey-White J, Osei-Hyiaman D, Razdan R, et al. 2006. A biosynthetic pathway for anandamide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103: 13345–13350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Lo Verme J, Fu J, Astarita G, La Rana G, Russo R, et al. 2005. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha mediates the anti-inflammatory actions of palmitoylethanolamide. Mol Pharmacol 67: 15–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lo Verme J, Russo R, La Rana G, Fu J, Farthing J, et al. 2006. Rapid broad-spectrum analgesia through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319: 1051–1061.Google Scholar
  108. Lombardi G, Miglio G, Varsaldi F, Minassi A, Appendino G. 2007. Oxyhomologation of the amide bond potentiates neuroprotective effects of the endolipid N-palmitoylethanolamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 320: 599–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Long DA, Martin AJ. 1956. Factor in arachis oil depressing sensitivity to tuberculin in B.C.G.-infected guineapigs. Lancet 270: 464–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Lozovaya N, Yatsenko N, Beketov A, Tsintsadze T, Burnashev N. 2005. Glycine receptors in CNS neurons as a target for nonretrograde action of cannabinoids. J Neurosci 25: 7499–7506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Maccarrone M, Bari M, Lorenzon T, Bisogno T, Di Marzo V, et al. 2000. Anandamide uptake by human endothelial cells and its regulation by nitric oxide. J Biol Chem 275: 13484–13492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Maccarrone M, Cartoni A, Parolaro D, Margonelli A, Massi P, et al. 2002b. Cannabimimetic activity, binding, and degradation of stearoylethanolamide within the mouse central nervous system. Mol Cell Neurosci 21: 126–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Maccarrone M, Pauselli R, Di Rienzo M, Finazzi-Agrò A. 2002a. Binding, degradation and apoptotic activity of stearoylethanolamide in rat C6 glioma cells. Biochem J 336: 137–144.Google Scholar
  114. Maccarrone M, Rossi S, Bari M, De Chiara V, Fezza F, et al. 2008. Anandamide inhibits metabolism and physiological actions of 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the striatum. Nat Neurosci 11: 152–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Maingret F, Patel AJ, Lazdunski M, Honoré E. 2001. The endocannabinoid anandamide is a direct and selective blocker of the background K(+) channel TASK-1. EMBO J 20: 47–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Maione S, Starowicz K, Palazzo E, Di Marzo V. 2006a. The endocannabinoid and endovanilloid systems and their interactions in neuropathic pain. Drug Devl Res 67: 339–354.Google Scholar
  117. Maione S, Bisogno T, de Novellis V, Palazzo E, Cristino L, et al. 2006b. Elevation of endocannabinoid levels in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey through inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase affects descending nociceptive pathways via both cannabinoid receptor type 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 316: 969–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Matias I, Di Marzo V. 2007. Endocannabinoids and the control of energy balance. Trends Endocrinol Metab 18: 27–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Matias I, Gonthier MP, Orlando P, Martiadis V, De Petrocellis L, et al. 2006. Regulation, function, and dysregulation of endocannabinoids in models of adipose and beta-pancreatic cells and in obesity and hyperglycemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91: 3171–3180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Matias I, Gonthier MP, Petrosino S, Docimo L, Capasso R, et al. 2007. Role and regulation of acylethanolamides in energy balance: Focus on adipocytes and beta-cells. Br J Pharmacol 152: 676–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Matsuda LA, Lolait SJ, Brownstein MJ, Young AC, Bonner TI. 1990. Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA. Nature 346: 561–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Maurelli S, Bisogno T, De Petrocellis L, Di Luccia A, Marino G, et al. 1995. Two novel classes of neuroactive fatty acid amides are substrates for mouse neuroblastoma ‘anandamide amidohydrolase’. FEBS Lett 377: 82–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Mazzari S, Canella R, Petrelli L, Marcolongo G, Leon A. 1996. N-(2-hydroxyethyl)hexadecanamide is orally active in reducing edema formation and inflammatory hyperalgesia by down-modulating mast cell activation. Eur J Pharmacol 300: 227–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. McFarland MJ, Porter AC, Rakhshan FR, Rawat DS, Gibbs RA, et al. 2004. A role for caveolae/lipid rafts in the uptake and recycling of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. J Biol Chem 279: 41991–41997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Mechoulam R, Fride E, Di Marzo V. 1998. Endocannabinoids. Eur J Pharmacol 359: 1–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Monory K, Tzavara ET, Lexime J, Ledent C, Parmentier M, et al. 2002. Novel, not adenylyl cyclase-coupled cannabinoid binding site in cerebellum of mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 292: 231–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Morgese MG, Cassano T, Cuomo V, Giuffrida A. 2007. Anti-dyskinetic effects of cannabinoids in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease: Role of CB(1) and TRPV1 receptors. Exp Neurol 208: 110–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Movahed P, Jonsson BA, Birnir B, Wingstrand JA, Jorgensen TD, et al. 2005. Endogenous unsaturated C18 N-acylethanolamines are vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) agonists. J Biol Chem 280: 38496–38504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Munro S, Thomas KL, Abu-Shaar M. 1993. Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids. Nature 365: 61–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Nyilas R, Dudok B, Urbán GM, Mackie K, Watanabe M, et al. 2008. Enzymatic machinery for endocannabinoid biosynthesis associated with calcium stores in glutamatergic axon terminals. J Neurosci 28: 1058–1063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Ohno-Shosaku T, Maejima T, Kano M. 2001. Endogenous cannabinoids mediate retrograde signals from depolarized postsynaptic neurons to presynaptic terminals. Neuron 29: 729–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Oka S, Nakajima K, Yamashita A, Kishimoto S, Sugiura T. 2007. Identification of GPR55 as a lysophosphatidylinositol receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 362: 928–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Okamoto Y, Morishita J, Tsuboi K, Tonai T, Ueda N. 2004. Molecular characterization of a phospholipase D generating anandamide and its congeners. J Biol Chem 279: 5298–5305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Oliver D, Lien CC, Soom M, Baukrowitz T, Jonas P, et al. 2004. Functional conversion between A-type and delayed rectifier K+ channels by membrane lipids. Science 304: 265–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Osei-Hyiaman D, De Petrillo M, Pacher P, Liu J, Radaeva S, et al. 2005a. Endocannabinoid activation at hepatic CB1 receptors stimulates fatty acid synthesis and contributes to diet-induced obesity. J Clin Invest 115: 1298–1305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Osei-Hyiaman D, Depetrillo M, Harvey-White J, Bannon AW, Cravatt BF, et al. 2005b. Cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript is involved in the orexigenic effect of endogenous anandamide. Neuroendocrinology 81: 273–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. O’Sullivan SE. 2007. Cannabinoids go nuclear: Evidence for activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Br J Pharmacol 152: 576–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Oveisi F, Gaetani S, Eng KT, Piomelli D. 2004. Oleoylethanolamide inhibits food intake in free-feeding rats after oral administration. Pharmacol Res 49: 461–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Overton HA, Babbs AJ, Doel SM, Fyfe MC, Gardner LS, et al. 2006. Deorphanization of a G protein-coupled receptor for oleoylethanolamide and its use in the discovery of small-molecule hypophagic agents. Cell Metab 3: 167–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Oz M. 2006. Receptor-independent effects of endocannabinoids on ion channels. Curr Pharm Des 12: 227–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Oz M, Ravindran A, Diaz-Ruiz O, Zhang L, Morales M. 2003. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated responses in Xenopus oocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 306: 1003–1010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Pagotto U, Marsicano G, Cota D, Lutz B, Pasquali R. 2006. The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in endocrine regulation and energy balance. Endocr Rev 27: 73–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Pertwee RG, Griffin G, Lainton JA, Huffman JW. 1995. Pharmacological characterization of three novel cannabinoid receptor agonists in the mouse isolated vas deferens. Eur J Pharmacol 284: 241–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Petersen G, Sorensen C, Schmid PC, Artmann A, Tang-Christensen M, et al. 2006. Intestinal levels of anandamide and oleoylethanolamide in food-deprived rats are regulated through their precursors. Biochim Biophys Acta 1761: 143–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Petrosino S, Palazzo E, de Novellis V, Bisogno T, Rossi F, et al. 2007. Changes in spinal and supraspinal endocannabinoid levels in neuropathic rats. Neuropharmacology 52: 415–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Poling JS, Rogawski MA, Salem N Jr, Vicini S. 1996. Anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid, inhibits Shaker-related voltage-gated K+ channels. Neuropharmacology 35: 983–991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Premkumar LS, Ahern GP. 2000. Induction of vanilloid receptor channel activity by protein kinase C. Nature 408: 985–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Priller J, Briley EM, Mansouri J, Devane WA, Mackie K, et al. 1995. Mead ethanolamide, a novel eicosanoid, is an agonist for the central (CB1) and peripheral (CB2) cannabinoid receptors. Mol Pharmacol 48: 288–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Proulx K, Cota D, Castañeda TR, Tschöp MH, D’Alessio DA, et al. 2005. Mechanisms of oleoylethanolamide-induced changes in feeding behavior and motor activity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289: R729–R737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Racke MK, Gocke AR, Muir M, Diab A, Drew PD, et al. 2006. Nuclear receptors and autoimmune disease: The potential of PPAR agonists to treat multiple sclerosis. J Nutr 136: 700–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Re G, Barbero R, Miolo A, Di Marzo V. 2007. Palmitoylethanolamide, endocannabinoids and related cannabimimetic compounds in protection against tissue inflammation and pain: Potential use in companion animals. Vet J 173: 21–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Rea K, Roche M, Finn DP. 2007. Supraspinal modulation of pain by cannabinoids: The role of GABA and glutamate. Br J Pharmacol 152: 633–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Rice AS, Farquhar-Smith WP, Nagy I. 2002. Endocannabinoids and pain: Spinal and peripheral analgesia in inflammation and neuropathy. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 66: 243–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Rizzo G, Fiorucci S. 2006. PPARs and other nuclear receptors in inflammation. Curr Opin Pharmacol 6: 421–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Roche R, Hoareau L, Bes-Houtmann S, Gonthier MP, Laborde C, et al. 2006. Presence of the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, in human omental and subcutaneous adipocytes. Histochem Cell Biol 126: 177–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Rodriguez de Fonseca F, Navarro M, Gomez R, Escuredo L, Nava F, et al. 2001. An anorexic lipid mediator regulated by feeding. Nature 414: 209–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Ross RA. 2003. Anandamide and vanilloid TRPV1 receptors. Br J Pharmacol 140: 790–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Ryberg E, Larsson N, Sjögren S, Hjorth S, Hermansson NO, et al. 2007. The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor. Br J Pharmacol 152: 1092–1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Serrano A, Del Arco I, Javier Pavón F, Macías M, Perez-Valero V, et al. 2008. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A (Rimonabant) enhances the metabolic benefits of long-term treatment with oleoylethanolamide in Zucker rats. Neuropharmacology 54: 226–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Sheerin AH, Zhang X, Saucier DM, Corcoran ME. 2004. Selective antiepileptic effects of N-palmitoylethanolamide, a putative endocannabinoid. Epilepsia 45: 1184–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Shimasue K, Urushidani T, Hagiwara M, Nagao T. 1996. Effects of anandamide and arachidonic acid on specific binding of (+)-PN200-110, diltiazem and (−)-desmethoxyverapamil to L-type Ca2+ channel. Eur J Pharmacol 296: 347–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Simon GM, Cravatt BF. 2006. Endocannabinoid biosynthesis proceeding through glycerophospho-N-acyl ethanolamine and a role for alpha/beta-hydrolase 4 in this pathway. J Biol Chem 281: 26465–26472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Skaper SD, Buriani A, Dal Toso R, Petrelli L, Romanello S, et al. 1996. The ALIAmide palmitoylethanolamide and cannabinoids, but not anandamide, are protective in a delayed postglutamate paradigm of excitotoxic death in cerebellar granule neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 3984–3989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Smart D, Gunthorpe MJ, Jerman JC, Nasir S, Gray J, et al. 2000. The endogenous lipid anandamide is a full agonist at the human vanilloid receptor (hVR1). Br J Pharmacol 129: 227–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Starowicz K, Cristino L, Di Marzo V. 2008a. TRPV1 receptors in the central nervous system: Potential for previously unforeseen therapeutic applications. Curr Pharm Des 14: 42–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Starowicz KM, Cristino L, Matias I, Capasso R, Racioppi A, et al. 2008b. Endocannabinoid dysregulation in the pancreas and adipose tissue of mice fed with a high-fat diet. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16: 553–565.Google Scholar
  167. Starowicz K, Maione S, Cristino L, Palazzo E, Marabese I, et al. 2007a. Tonic endovanilloid facilitation of glutamate release in brainstem descending antinociceptive pathways. J Neurosci 27: 13739–13749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Starowicz K, Nigam S, Di Marzo V. 2007b. Biochemistry and pharmacology of endovanilloids. Pharmacol Ther 114: 13–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Suardíaz M, Estivill-Torrús G, Goicoechea C, Bilbao A, Rodríguez de Fonseca F. 2007. Analgesic properties of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in visceral and inflammatory pain. Pain 133: 99–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Sun Y, Alexander SP, Garle MJ, Gibson CL, Hewitt K, et al. 2007. Cannabinoid activation of PPAR alpha; a novel neuroprotective mechanism. Br J Pharmacol 152: 734–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Sun YX, Tsuboi K, Okamoto Y, Tonai T, Murakami M, et al. 2004. Biosynthesis of anandamide and N-palmitoylethanolamine by sequential actions of phospholipase A2 and lysophospholipase D. Biochem J 380: 749–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Szabo B, Urbanski MJ, Bisogno T, Di Marzo V, Mendiguren A, et al. 2006. Depolarization-induced retrograde synaptic inhibition in the mouse cerebellar cortex is mediated by 2-arachidonoylglycerol. J Physiol 577: 263–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Tasker JG. 2006. Rapid glucocorticoid actions in the hypothalamus as a mechanism of homeostatic integration. Obesity (Silver Spring) 5: 259S–265S.Google Scholar
  174. Terrazzino S, Berto F, Dalle Carbonare M, Fabris M, Guiotto A, et al. 2004. Stearoylethanolamide exerts anorexic effects in mice via down-regulation of liver stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 mRNA expression. FASEB J 18: 1580–1582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Tominaga M, Tominaga T. 2005. Structure and function of TRPV1. Pflugers Arch 451: 143–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Tsou K, Nogueron MI, Muthian S, Sanudo-Pena MC, Hillard CJ, et al. 1998. Fatty acid amide hydrolase is located preferentially in large neurons in the rat central nervous system as revealed by immunohistochemistry. Neurosci Lett 254: 137–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Tsuboi K, Sun YX, Okamoto Y, Araki N, Tonai T, et al. 2005. Molecular characterization of N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase, a novel member of the choloylglycine hydrolase family with structural and functional similarity to acid ceramidase. J Biol Chem 280: 11082–11092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Tsuboi K, Zhao LY, Okamoto Y, Araki N, Ueno M, et al. 2007. Predominant expression of lysosomal N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase in macrophages revealed by immunochemical studies. Biochim Biophys Acta 1771: 623–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Ueda N, Yamanaka K, Yamamoto S. 2001. Purification and characterization of an acid amidase selective for N-palmitoylethanolamine, a putative endogenous anti-inflammatory substance. J Biol Chem 276: 35552–35557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. van der Stelt M, Di Marzo V. 2004. Endovanilloids. Putative endogenous ligands of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels. Eur J Biochem 271: 1827–1834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. van der Stelt M, Di Marzo V. 2005. Cannabinoid receptors and their role in neuroprotection. Neuromolecular Med 7: 37–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. van der Stelt M, Trevisani M, Vellani V, De Petrocellis L, Schiano Moriello A, et al. 2005. Anandamide acts as an intracellular messenger amplifying Ca2+ influx via TRPV1 channels. EMBO J 24: 3026–3037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Veldhuis WB, van der Stelt M, Wadman MW, van Zadelhoff G, Maccarrone M, et al. 2003. Neuroprotection by the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide and arvanil against in vivo excitotoxicity in the rat: Role of vanilloid receptors and lipoxygenases. J Neurosci 23: 4127–4133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Walker JM, Huang SM, Strangman NM, Tsou K, Sañudo-Peña MC. 1999. Pain modulation by release of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 12198–12203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Walker JM, Krey JF, Chen JS, Vefring E, Jahnsen JA, et al. 2005. Targeted lipidomics: Fatty acid amides and pain modulation. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 77: 35–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Wallace VC, Segerdahl AR, Lambert DM, Vandevoorde S, Blackbeard J, et al. 2007. The effect of the palmitoylethanolamide analogue, palmitoylallylamide (L-29) on pain behaviour in rodent models of neuropathy. Br J Pharmacol 151: 1117–1128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Walter L, Franklin A, Witting A, Wade C, Xie Y, et al. 2003. Nonpsychotropic cannabinoid receptors regulate microglial cell migration. J Neurosci 23: 1398–1405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Wang J, Okamoto Y, Morishita J, Tsuboi K, Miyatake A, et al. 2006. Functional analysis of the purified anandamide-generating phospholipase D as a member of the metallo-beta-lactamase family. J Biol Chem 281: 12325–12335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Wang X, Miyares RL, Ahern GP. 2005. Oleoylethanolamide excites vagal sensory neurones, induces visceral pain and reduces short-term food intake in mice via capsaicin receptor TRPV1. J Physiol 564: 541–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Wei BQ, Mikkelsen TS, McKinney MK, Lander ES, Cravatt BF. 2006. A second fatty acid amide hydrolase with variable distribution among placental mammals. J Biol Chem 281: 36569–36578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Wilson RI, Nicoll RA. 2001. Endogenous cannabinoids mediate retrograde signalling at hippocampal synapses. Nature 410: 588–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Wise LE, Cannavacciulo R, Cravatt BF, Martin BF, Lichtman AH. 2008. Evaluation of fatty acid amides in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. Neuropharmacology 54: 181–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Xu J, Storer PD, Chavis JA, Racke MK, Drew PD. 2005. Agonists for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and the retinoid X receptor inhibit inflammatory responses of microglia. J Neurosci Res 81: 403–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Zhao LY, Tsuboi K, Okamoto Y, Nagahata S, Ueda N. 2007. Proteolytic activation and glycosylation of N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase, a lysosomal enzyme involved in the endocannabinoid metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta 1771: 1397–1405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Zygmunt PM, Petersson J, Andersson DA, Chuang H, Sørgård M, et al. 1999. Vanilloid receptors on sensory nerves mediate the vasodilator action of anandamide. Nature 400: 452–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Petrosino
  • V. Di Marzo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations