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Lipid Anchors to Proteins

  • N. N. Nalivaeva
  • A. J. Turner
Reference work entry

Abstract:

A variety of lipid anchor mechanisms are used to target and stabilise the membrane association of proteins, many of which play important roles in synaptic development, function and plasticity. These lipid anchors include long-chain acyl or prenyl groups, glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) and cholesterol. The lipid association with proteins can be either reversible or irreversible and an individual protein may have more than one lipid anchor attached. This chapter summarises some of the main mechanisms of lipid protein anchoring, including myristoylation, palmitoylation, isoprenylation and GPI addition and the enzymes involved in the covalent addition of lipid moieties to proteins. Lipid anchoring can influence protein targeting, especially to membrane lipid rafts, which can have pathological consequences, e.g. in Alzheimer’s disease. Specific examples of lipid-anchored proteins of neurochemical significance will be described in detail, including the prion protein, neural cell adhesion molecules and acetylcholinesterase.

Keywords

Lipid Raft Prion Protein Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis Farnesyl Pyrophosphate Lipid Modification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:

AChE

acetylcholinesterase

ADAM

A disintegrin and metalloproteinase

AMPA

α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate

APP

amyloid precursor protein

BACE

β-site APP cleaving enzyme (β-secretase)

EGFR

epidermal growth factor receptor

GAP-43

Growth Associated Protein 43 (neuromodulin)

GPI

glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol

HMG

hydroxymethylglutaryl

MARCKS

myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate

MBOAT

membrane bound O-acyltransferase

N-CAM

neural cell adhesion molecule

PI-PLC

phosphatidylinositol specific phospholipase C

PLA2

phospholipase A2

PPT

palmitoyl-protein thioesterase

PRiMA

proline-rich membrane anchor

PrP

prion protein

PSD

post-synaptic density

REP

rab escort protein

RGGT

rab geranylgeranyl transferase

Shh

sonic hedgehog

SNAP

synaptosome-associated protein

SNARE

soluble NSF Attachment protein receptors

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the UK Medical Research Council, Yorkshire Cancer Research, the Wellcome Trust, the Royal Society and the E.U. INTAS scheme for support of our research.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. N. Nalivaeva
  • A. J. Turner

There are no affiliations available

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