Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxiv
  2. Biotoxins with Potential as Bioweapons

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Padmanabhan Saravanan, Ganapathy Rajaseger, Yap Peng-Huat Eric, Shabbir Moochhala
      Pages 29-42
    3. Mohammad Moshiri, Leila Etemad, Mahdi Balali-Mood
      Pages 43-59
    4. Gholamreza Karimi, Soghra Mehri
      Pages 61-77
    5. Hsiao Ying Chen, Ling Yann Foo, Weng Keong Loke
      Pages 79-102
    6. Hassan Yazdanpanah, Samira Eslamizad
      Pages 103-120
    7. Ganapathy Rajaseger, Padmanabhan Saravanan
      Pages 121-138
  3. Risk Assessment of Biotoxins

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 139-139
    2. Brenda A. Wilson, Mengfei Ho
      Pages 141-183
    3. Ajay K. Singh, Eric A. E. Garber, Maryann C. Principato, Sherwood Hall, Shashi K. Sharma
      Pages 185-210
    4. Chao-Nan Lin
      Pages 211-228
  4. Surveillance Tools for Biotoxins

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 245-245
    2. Patrick McNutt, Phillip Beske, Nagarajan Thirunavukkarsu
      Pages 247-271
    3. M. Venkataramana, S. Chandranayaka, H. S. Prakash, S. R. Niranjana
      Pages 295-319
  5. Developing Responses to a Biotoxin Attack

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 321-321
    2. Gyanendra Kumar
      Pages 357-373
    3. Baskaran Thyagarajan
      Pages 375-400
    4. Shradha Bagaria, Anjali A. Karande
      Pages 401-424
    5. Li-Ting Cheng, Yao-Chi Chung, Chung-Da Yang, Kuo-Pin Chuang, Guan-Ming Ke, Chun-Yen Chu
      Pages 449-467
    6. Shuowei Cai, Pavithra Janardhanan
      Pages 505-523
  6. Evolutionary and Historical Perspectives of Biotoxins as Weapons

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 525-525
    2. Raj Kumar, Tzuu-Wang Chang, Bal Ram Singh
      Pages 527-557
    3. Michael J. Tyler
      Pages 559-569
    4. Lyndon E. Llewellyn
      Pages 571-588
  7. Hsiao Ying Chen, Ling Yann Foo, Weng Keong Loke
    Pages E1-E3
  8. Back Matter
    Pages 601-604

About this book


Biological toxins are an important part of our world, a reality with which we need to cope, so in parallel with understanding their mechanisms of action and thereby improving our fundamental knowledge, there are successful efforts to utilize them as therapeutics against some debilitating human and animal diseases. In view of the complexity of different types of biotoxins and the broad range of toxin structure, physiology, utility, and countermeasures including regulatory issues, it was thus aimed to compile a book on biotoxins and bioweapons.


This reference work in the Toxinology handbook series gathers together knowledge from around the globe about naturally inspired and manufactured biological weapons. The authors describe how they work; how authorities may detect their presence, prevent their use, and diagnose their impacts; and the means by which medical and paramedical professionals may treat victims. Also described are how they have been used to further our knowledge and what insights they have given us into evolutionary and physiological processes. Finally, it is also discussed how these toxins can be used as therapeutics and what the implications of such therapeutics are to their use as biothreat agents.


This volume provides a reference accessible to scientists, educators, and medical experts alike with an interest in biotoxins, focusing on the major toxins used as bioweapons. Regulatory agencies will also benefit from the information provided in this book. Some in the intended audience may need to understand how they elicit their effects and how we can defend ourselves against them. Others may be interested in the sometimes colorful histories that surround this subset of biotoxins that can be and, in some cases, have been used as weapons.


Drug Development Drug Discovery Toxin Toxinology Venom

Editors and affiliations

  • P. Gopalakrishnakone
    • 1
  • Mahdi Balali-Mood
    • 2
  • Lyndon Llewellyn
    • 3
  • Bal Ram Singh
    • 4
  1. 1.Venom and Toxin Research Programme Department of AnatomyYong Loo Lin School of Medicine National University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine Medical Toxicology Research CentreMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  3. 3.Data and Technology InnovationAustralian Institute of Marine ScienceTownsvilleAustralia
  4. 4.University of MassachusettsBotulinum Research Center, Institute of Advanced SciencesDartmouthUSA

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