Somatic Embryogenesis in Picea Suspension Cultures

  • Claudio Stasolla
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 318)


Generation of somatic embryos in spruce is achieved through the execution of five steps designated as: (1) induction of embryogenic tissue, (2) maintenance of embryogenic tissue, (3) embryo development, (4) embryo maturation, and (5) conversion into plants. Depending on species and genotypes within the same species, each step must be optimized for obtaining maximum results. In general, embryogenic tissue is generated from immature and mature zygotic embryos and maintained in either liquid or solid conditions in the presence of plant growth regulators auxin and cytokinin. Initiation of embryo development in suspension cultured is induced by removal of plant growth regulators, whereas continuation of development and completion of maturation require applications of abscisic acid and imposition of a desiccation period. Both treatments are needed for conferring morphological and physiological maturation to the embryos. Mature somatic embryos are germinated in the absence of plant regulators and embryo conversion (i.e., formation of a functional shoot and root, occurs after a few weeks in culture).

Key Words

Conversion drying treatment embryogenic tissue embryo development and maturation germination spruce 



The author acknowledges with gratitude the support received from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada in the form of a Discovery Grant.


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudio Stasolla
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant ScienceUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

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