Measurement of NO Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

  • S. Tsuyoshi Ohnishi
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 100)


Absorption spectroscopy is based upon the principle that the absorption of radiation by a molecule involves the transition of the energy level from its ground state to an excited state. If we denote the energy difference as ΔE and the frequency of radiation as ν, then the relationship is expressed as where ħ is the Planck’s constant. In optical-absorption spectroscopy, the absorption may be caused by π-electrons in proteins or conjugated double bonds. In infrared spectroscopy, the absorption may depend on bond angles and strength. In EPR, it is the magnetic interaction between the electron spin of a compound and the magnetic field applied by the instrument. In nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR), the interaction between the nuclear spin and the applied field is detected. Table 1 shows approximate frequencies and wavelengths typical to these spectroscopic techniques. The exact wavelength (λ) can be calculated from the equation, c = νλ, where c is the light velocity (3 × 1010 cm/s).
Table 1

Approximate Frequencies and Wavelengths of Absorption Spectroscopy for Biologic Materials


Transition frequency, n(Hz)

Wavelength, λ (cm)

UV absorption


10−6 – 10−5

Visible absorption


10−5 – 10−4


1014 – 1013

10−4 – 10−2

EPR (microwave)

1011 – 109

10−1 – 101

NMR (radio frequency)

109 – 108

101 – 102


Nitric Oxide Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Quartz Tube Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Measurement Trapping Agent 
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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Tsuyoshi Ohnishi
    • 1
  1. 1.Philadelphia Biomedical Research InstituteKing of Prussia

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