Use of Complimentary In Vitro and In Vivo Methods for Assessing Neuroendocrine Disruptors

  • W. Les Dees
  • Jill K. Hiney
  • Robert K. Dearth
  • Vinod K. Srivastava
Part of the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology book series (MIPT)


It is often necessary to use a variety of techniques to more completely assess a specific area of study. In recent years, this has been increasingly true for the field of neuroendocrinology. Anatomical and molecular methodologies are often used in conjunction with in vitro and in vivo physiological approaches to gain meaningful information regarding factors controlling or altering neuroendocrine functions. When used together in a given study, in vitro and in vivo methods can be complimentary to one another and, thus, provide vital information. The focus of this chapter will be to demonstrate how both in vitro and in vivo techniques can be used in this complimentary fashion to provide new and important insights into basic neuroendocrine events and their mechanisms of action. Furthermore, we will demonstrate how these techniques can be used to help better understand the sites of action and the effects of specific toxic substances that alter neuroendocrine function.


Luteinizing Hormone Median Eminence Luteinizing Hormone Level Luteinizing Hormone Secretion Luteinizing Hormone Release 
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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Les Dees
    • 1
  • Jill K. Hiney
    • 1
  • Robert K. Dearth
    • 1
  • Vinod K. Srivastava
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Anatomy Public Health, College of Veterinary MedicineTexas A&M UniversityCollege Station

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