Measurement of Fat-Soluble Vitamins and Antioxidants by HPLC With Electrochemical Array Detection

  • Paul H. Gamache
  • Paul A. Ullucci
  • Joe A. Archangelo
  • Ian N. Acworth
Part of the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology book series (MIPT)


Fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants (FSVAs) are a structurally diverse group of compounds (Fig. 1) that play important roles in a wide spectrum of biochemical and physiological processes, e.g., photoreception (vitamin A, retinol); plasma calcium homeostasis (vitamin D2, ergocalciferol; vitamin D3, cholecalciferol); and blood clotting (vitamin K1, phylloquinone). Of considerable interest is the involvement of some FSVAs in oxidative metabolism and the prevention of damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) (1,2). For example, α-tocopherol (vitamin E) is the primary antioxidant species in the membrane. Here it intercepts lipid peroxyl radicals, thereby inhibiting lipid peroxidation, a self-perpetuating chain reaction, and preventing catastrophic membrane damage. α-Tocopherol is thought to be regenerated from the resulting α-tocopheryl radical by reaction with reduced coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) (the ubiquinone/ubiquinol system) also located within the membrane, or with cytosolic ascorbic acid (or glutathione) at the cytoplasm-membrane interface (1,2). Another form of vitamin E, γ-tocopherol, readily reacts with reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as peroxynitrite to form 5-nitro-γ-tocopherol, a marker of RNS production (3).
Fig. 1.

The chemical structures of some fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants.


Milk Sample Reactive Nitrogen Species Global Method Sodium Perchlorate Gradient Profile 
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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc.,Totowa, NJ 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul H. Gamache
    • 1
  • Paul A. Ullucci
    • 1
  • Joe A. Archangelo
    • 1
  • Ian N. Acworth
    • 1
  1. 1.ESA Inc.Chelmsford

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