Epidemiological Investigation of Prostate Cancer

  • Graham G. Giles
Part of the Methods in Molecular Medicine™ book series (MIMM, volume 81)


Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer diagnosed in Western populations. Autopsy studies have shown that with increasing age, the majority of men will develop microscopic foci of cancer (often termed “latent” prostate cancer) and that this is true in populations that are at both high and low risk for the invasive form of the disease (1). However, only a small percentage of men will develop invasive prostate cancer. The prevalence of prostate cancer is, thus, very common; but to most men, prostate cancer will be only incidental to their health and death.


Prostate Cancer Androgen Receptor Prostate Cancer Risk Androgen Receptor Gene Invasive Prostate Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Yatani, R., Chigusa, I., Akazaki, K., Stemmermann, G. N., Welsh, R. A., and Correa, P. (1982) Geographic pathology of latent prostatic carcinoma. Int. J. Cancer 29, 611–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Giles, G. G. and Ireland, P. (1997) Diet, nutrition and prostate cancer. Int. J. Cancer 74, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Smith, D. P. and Armstrong, B. K. (1998) Prostate-specific antigen testing in Australia and association with prostate cancer incidence in New South Wales. Med. J. Aust. 169, 17–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Breslow, N. E. and Day, N. E. (1980) Statistical Methods in Cancer Research: Vol 1. The Analysis of Case-Control Studies. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, IARC Scientific Publications No. 32.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Breslow, N. E. and Day, NE. (1987) Statistical Methods in Cancer Research: Vol 2. The Design and Analysis of Cohort Studies. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, IARC Scientific Publications No. 82.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Australian Institute of Health & Welfare and Australasian Association of Cancer Registries. (1997) Cancer in Australia. Australian Institute of Health & Welfare, Canberra, 2000.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Parkin, D. M., Muir, C., Waterhouse, J., Mack, T., Powell, J., and Whelan, S. (eds.) (1992) Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. VI. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, IARC Scientific Publications No. 120.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Minami, Y. Staples, M., and Giles, G. G. (1993) Cancer in Italian migrants to Victoria. Eur. J. Cancer 29, 1735–1740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Giles, G. G., Jelfs, P., and Kliewer, E. (1995) Cancer Mortality in Migrants to Australia. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Cancer Series No. 4, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Clinton, S. K. and Giovannucci, E. (1998) Diet, nutrition, and prostate cancer. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 18, 413–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chan, J. M., Stampfer, M. J., and Giovannucci, E. L. (1998) What causes prostate cancer? A brief summary of the epidemiology. Semin. Cancer Biol. 8, 263–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ross, R. K. and Schottenfeld, D. (1996) Prostate cancer, in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, 2nd ed. (Schottenfeld, D. and Fraumeni, J. F., eds.), Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 1180–1206.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lesko, S. M., Rosenberg, L., and Shapiro, S. (1996) Family history and prostate cancer risk. Am. J. Epidemiol. 144, 1041–1047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hopper, J. L. and Carlin, J. B. (1992) Familial aggregation of a disease consequent upon correlation between relatives in a risk factor measured on a continuous scale. Am. J. Epidemiol. 136, 1138–1147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Peto, J. (1980) Genetic predisposition to cancer, in Cancer Incidence in Defined Populations, Banbury Report no. 4 (Cairns, J., Lyon, J. L., and Skolnick, M., eds.), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, pp. 203–213.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ostrander, E. A. and Stanford, J. L. (2000) Genetics of prostate cancer: too many loci, too few genes. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67, 1367–1375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ingles, S. A., Ross, R. K., Yu, M. C., Irvine, R. A., La Pera, G., Haile, R. W., et al. (1997) Association of prostate cancer risk with genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor and androgen receptor. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 89, 166–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xue, W., Irvine, R. A., Yu, M. C., Ross, R. K., Coetzee, G. A., and Ingles, S. A. (2000) Susceptibility to prostate cancer: Interaction between genotypes at the androgen receptor and prostate specific antigen loci. Cancer Res. 60, 839–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jaffe, J. M., Malkowicz, S. B., Walker, A. H., MacBride, S., Peschel, R., Tomaszewski, J., et al. (2000) Association of SRD5A2 genotype and pathological characteristics of prostate tumors. Cancer Res. 60, 1626–1630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Walker, A. H., Jaffe, J. M., Gunasegaram, S., Cummings, S. A., Huang, C. S., Chern, H. D., et al. (1998) Characterization of an allelic variant in the nifedipine-specific element of CYP3A4: Ethnic distribution and implications for prostate cancer risk. Hum. Mutat. 12, 289–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ma, J., Stampfer, M. J., Gann, P. H., Hough, H. L., Giovannucci, E., Kelsey, K. T., et al. (1998) Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, circulating vitamin D metabolites, and risk of prostate cancer in US physicians. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 242, 467–473.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kelada, S. N., Kardia, S. L. R, Walker, A. H., Wein, A. J., Malkowicz, S. B., and Rebbeck, T. R. (2000) The glutathione S-transferase-mu and-theta genotypes in the etiology of prostate cancer: Genotype-environment interactions with smoking. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 9, 1329–1334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rebbeck, T. R., Walker, A. H., Zeigler-Johnson, C., Weisberg, S., Martin, A. M., Nathanson, K. L., et al. (2000) Association of HPC2/ELAC2 genotypes and prostate cancer. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67, 1014–1019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Russell, P. J., Bennett, S., and Stricker, P. (1998) Growth factor involvement in progression of prostate cancer. Clin. Chem. 44, 705–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Santen, R. J. (1992) Endocrine treatment of prostate cancer. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 75, 685–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bentel, J. M. and Tilley, W. D. (1996) Androgen receptors in prostate cancer. J. Endocrinol. 151, 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ross, R. K., Pike, M. C., Coetzee, G. A., Reichardt, J. K. V., Mimi, C. Y., Feigelson, H., et al. (1998) Androgen metabolism and prostate cancer: establishing a model of genetic susceptibility. Cancer Res. 58, 4497–4504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Choong, C. S., Kemppainen, J. A., Zhou, Z. X., and Wilson, E. M. (1996) Reduced androgen receptor gene expression with first exon CAG repeat expansion. Mol. Endocrinol. 10, 1527–1535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chamberlain, N. L., Driver, E. D., and Miesfeld, R. L. (1994) The length and location of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the androgen receptor N-terminal domain affect transactivation function. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 3181–3186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Moghrabi, N., Hughes, E., Dunaif, A., and Andersson, S. (1998) Deleterious missense mutations and silent polymorphism in the human 17b-hydroxysteroid dehy-drogenase 3 gene (HSD17B3). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83, 2855–2860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Issa, L. L., Leong, G. M., and Eisman, J. A. (1998) Molecular mechanism of vitamin D receptor action. Inflamm. Res. 47, 451–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Morrison, N. A., Qi, J. C., Tokita, A., Kelly, P. J., Crofts, L., Nguyen, T. V., et al. (1994) Prediction of bone density from vitamin D receptor alleles. Nature 367, 284–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ingles, S. A., Ross, R. K., Yu, M. C., Irvine, R. A., La Pera, G., Haile, R. W., et al. (1997) Association of prostate cancer risk with genetic polymorphisms in Vitamin D receptor and Androgen Receptor. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 89, 166–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Taylor, J. A., Hirvonen, A., Watson, M., Pittman, G., Mohler, J. L., and Bell, D. A. (1996) Association of prostate cancer with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism. Cancer Res. 56, 4108–4110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Corder, E. H., Friedman, G. D., Vogelman, J. H., and Orentreich, N. (1995) Seasonal variation in Vitamin D, Vitamin D-binding protein, and dehydroepiandrosterone: Risk of prostate cancer in black and white men. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 4, 655–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nickerson, T. and Huynh, H. (1999) Vitamin D analogue EB1089-induced prostate regression is associated with increased gene expression of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. J. Endocrinol. 160, 223–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Miyao, M., Hosoi, T., Inoue, S., Hoshino, S., Shiraki, M., Orimo, H., et al. (1998) Polymorphism of insulin-like growth factor I gene and bone mineral density. Calcified Tissue Int. 63, 306–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mullis, P. E., Patel, M. S., Brickell, P. M., and Brook, C. G. (1991) Constitutionally short stature: analysis of the insulin-like growth factor-I gene and the human growth hormone gene cluster. Pediatr. Res. 29, 412–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rosen, C. J., Kurland, E. S., Vereault, D., Adler, R. A., Rackoff, P. J., Craig, W. Y., et al. (1998) Association between IGF I and a simple sequence repeat in the IGF I gene: Implications for genetic studies of bone mineral density. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83, 2286–2290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Liang, T. and Liao, S. (1992) Inhibition of steroid 5 a reductase by specific aliphatic unsaturated fatty acids. Biochem. J. 285, 557–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhou, J. R. and Blackburn, G. L. (1997) Bridging animal and human studies: What are the missing segments in dietary fat and prostate cancer? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 66, 1572S–1580SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Norrish, A. E., Jackson, R. T., and McRae, C. U. (1998) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostate cancer progression. Int. J. Cancer 77, 511–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ghoshi, J. and Myers, C. (1998) Arachidonic acid metabolism and cancer of the prostate. Nutrition 14, 48–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cesano, A., Visonneau, S., Scimeca, J. A., Kritchevsky, D., and Santoli, D. (1998) Opposite effects of linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid on human prostatic cancer in SCID mice. Anticancer Res. 18, 833–838.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rautalahti, M., Albanes, D., Virtamo, J., Taylor, P. R., Huttunen, J. K., and Heinonen, O. P. (1997) Beta-carotene did not work: aftermath of the ATBC study. Cancer Lett. 114, 235–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Clinton, S. K., Emenhiser, C., Schwartz, S.J., Bostwick, D. G., Williams, A. W., Moore, B. J., et al. (1996) Cis-trans lycopene isomers, carotenoids, and retinol in the human prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 5, 823–833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Griffiths, K., Denis, L., Turkes, A., and Morton, M. S. (1998) Possible relationship between dietary factors and pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Int. J. Urol. 5, 195–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wolk, A., Mantzoros, C. S., Andersson, S. O., Bergstrom, R., Signorello, L. B., Lagiou, P., et al. (1998) Insulin-like growth factor 1 and prostate cancer risk: a population-based case-control study. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 911–915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    vom Saal, F. S., Timms, B. G., Montano, M. M., Palanza, P., Thayer, K. A., Nagel, S. C., et al. (1997) Prostate enlargement in mice due to fetal exposure to low doses of estradiol or diethylstilbestrol and opposite effects at high doses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 2056–2061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Putnam, S. D., Cerhan, J. R., Parker, A. S., Bianchi, G. D., Wallace, R. B., Cantor, K. P., et al. (2000) Lifestyle and anthropometric risk factors for prostate cancer in a cohort of Iowa men. Ann. Epidemiol. 10, 361–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Liu, S., Lee, I. M., Linson, P., Ajani, U. Buring, J. E., and Hennekens, C. H. (2000) A prospective study of physical activity and risk of prostate cancer in US physicians. Int. J. Epidemiol. 29, 29–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Clarke, G. and Whittemore, A. S. (2000) Prostate cancer risk in relation to anthropometry and physical activity: Tthe National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiological Follow-Up Study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 9, 875–881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lund-Nilsen, T. I., Johnsen, R., and Vatten, L. J. (2000) Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Br. J. Cancer 82, 1358–1363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Severson, R. K., Grove, J. S., Nomura, A. M. Y., and Stemmerman, G. N. (1988) Body mass and prostate cancer: a prospective study. Br. Med. J. 297, 713–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ewings, P. and Bowie, C. (1996) A case-control study of cancer of the prostate in Somerset and east Devon. Br. J. Cancer 74, 661–666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hayes, R. B., Pottern, L. M., Strickler, H., Rabkin, C., Pope, V., Swanson, G. M., et al. (2000) Sexual behaviour, STDs and risks for prostate cancer. Br. J. Cancer 82, 718–725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Andersson, S. O., Baron, J., Bergstrom, R., Lindgren, C., Wolk, A., and Adami, H. O. (1996) Lifestyle factors and prostate cancer risk: A case-control study in Sweden. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 5, 509–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hsieh, C. C., Thanos, A., Mitropoulos, D., Deliveliotis, C., Mantzoros, C. S., and Trichopoulos, D. (1999) Risk factors for prostate cancer: A case-control study in Greece. Int. J. Cancer 80, 699–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dillner, J., Knekt, P., Boman, J., Lehtinen, M., Af Geijersstam, V., Sapp, M., et al. (1998) Sero-epidemiological association between human-papillomavirus infection and risk of prostate cancer. Int. J. Cancer 75, 564–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rotkin, I. D. (1977) Studies in the epidemiology of prostatic cancer: expanded sampling. Cancer Treatment Reports 61, 173–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fincham, S. M., Hill, G. B., Hanson, J., and Wijayasinghe, C. (1990) Epidemiology of prostatic cancer: A case-control study. Prostate 17, 189–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ross, R. K., Deapen, D. M., Casagrande, J. T., Paganini-Hill, A., and Henderson, B. E. (1981) A cohort study of mortality from cancer of the prostate in Catholic priests. Br. J. Cancer 43, 233–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Colditz, G. (1996) Consensus conference: smoking and prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 7, 560–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lumey, L. H. (1996) Prostate cancer and smoking: A review of case-control and cohort studies. Prostate 29, 249–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Giovannucci, E., Rimm, E. B., Ascherio, A., Colditz, G. A., Spiegelman, D., Stampfer, M. J., et al. (1999) Smoking and risk of total and fatal prostate cancer in United States health professionals. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 8, 277–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lotufo, P. A., Lee, I. M., Ajani, U. A., Hennekens, C. H., and Manson, J. E. (2000) Cigarette smoking and risk of prostate cancer in the Physicians’ Health Study. Int. J. Cancer 87, 141–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Breslow, R. A. and Weed, D. L. (1998) Review of epidemiologic studies of alcohol and prostate cancer: 1971–1996. Nutr. Cancer 30, 1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lumey, L. H., Pittman, B., and Wynder, E. L. (1998) Alcohol use and prostate cancer in U.S. whites: No association in a confirmatory study. Prostate 36, 250–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Villeneuve, P. J., Johnson, K. C., Krieger, N., and Mao, Y. (1999) Risk factors for prostate cancer: results from the Canadian National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System. The Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group. Cancer Causes Control 10, 355–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Schuurman, A. G., Goldbohm, R. A., and van den Brandt, P. A. (1999) A prospective study on consumption of alcoholic beverages in relation to prostate cancer incidence (The Netherlands). Cancer Causes Control 10, 597–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graham G. Giles
    • 1
  1. 1.Cancer Epidemiology CentreCancer Control Research InstituteCarlton SouthAustralia

Personalised recommendations