Virological Methods for the Generation and Characterization of Influenza Viruses with Reduced Sensitivity to 4-Guanidino-Neu5Ac2en

  • Jennifer L. McKimm-Breschkin
  • Anjali Sahasrabudhe
  • Tony J. Blick
  • Amanda J. Jowett
  • Richard C. Bethell
Part of the Methods in Molecular Medicine™ book series (MIMM, volume 24)


The compound 4-guanidino-Neu5Ac2en (zanamivir) has been described as a selective inhibitor of the influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) (1). Viruses that are less sensitive to this inhibitor can be isolated after several passages in MDCK cells in the presence of the inhibitor. Variants isolated so far have had mutations predominantly in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene (2). Many of these mutations appear to lower the affinity of the HA for the cellular receptor, so that there is less requirement for significant NA activity for the newly synthesized progeny virus to elute. There are three reports of a mutation in the NA gene, all at the same conserved site, glu 119 (3, 4, 5). In this chapter, the authors describe methods for the isolation of the mutants, and for their characterization in cell culture based assays.


MDCK Cell Maintenance Medium Drug Sensitivity Assay Carbol Fuchsin Passage Virus 
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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer L. McKimm-Breschkin
  • Anjali Sahasrabudhe
  • Tony J. Blick
  • Amanda J. Jowett
  • Richard C. Bethell

There are no affiliations available

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