Monitoring Drug Resistance for Herpesviruses

  • Graciela Andrei
  • Pierre Fiten
  • Erik De Clercq
  • Robert Snoeck
  • Ghislain Opdenakker
Part of the Methods in Molecular Medicine™ book series (MIMM, volume 24)


Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) cause diseases that are usually self-limiting in the immunocompetent host. However, HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, and CMV are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised patient. Prolonged antiviral treatment is often required for the clinical management of herpesvirus infections in the immunocompromised patient, and this favors the emergence of drug-resistant strains. The isolation of acyclovir-resistant (ACVr) HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV strains as well as ganciclovir-resistant (GCVr) CMV strains has been reported with increasing frequency and is a major concern (1, 2, 3). Resistance to foscarnet (phosphonoformic acid [PFA]), the drug of choice when ACV or GCV fails, has also been described in the clinic (4,5). Furthermore, double resistance to both GCV and PFA (for CMV) and to both ACV and PFA (for HSV) has been observed in immuno-compromised patients after sequential and concomitant treatment with either or both drugs.


Plaque Reduction Assay SacI Restriction Enzyme Human Embryonic Lung Cell Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonate Phosphonoformic Acid 
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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graciela Andrei
    • 1
  • Pierre Fiten
    • 1
  • Erik De Clercq
    • 1
  • Robert Snoeck
    • 1
  • Ghislain Opdenakker
    • 1
  1. 1.Rega Institute for Medical ResearchKatholieke UniversiteitLeuvenBelgium

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