Cytotoxins Directed at Interleukin-4 Receptors as Therapy for Human Brain Tumors
Part of the
Methods in Molecular Biology™
book series (MIMB, volume 166)
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic immune regulatory cytokine that has been extensively studied in the last decade. Activated T-lymphocytes, mast cells, and basophils (1, 2, 3) produce it. Consistent with the pleiotropic nature of this molecule, the receptors for IL-4 have been identified on many different cell types, including hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells (2, 3, 4). We have reported that a variety of solid tumor cells express a greater number of highaffinity IL-4 receptors (IL-4R) than normal cells (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12). We were first to report that murine solid cancer cells expressed high affinity IL-4R (4). We later reported that human renal-cell carcinoma and other solid tumor cells expressed functional IL-4R (6, 7). These receptors are functional because IL-4 can cause signal transduction, inhibit growth of some tumor cell lines, and increase expression of major histocompatibility antigens and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on some tumor cell lines (11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17). IL-4R is also expressed, although in low numbers, in normal immune cells such as T-cells, B-cells, monocytes, other blood cells such as eosinophils, basophils, and fibroblasts, and endothelial cells (1, 2, 3).
KeywordsGlioma Cell Glioblastoma Cell Cerebral Spinal Fluid Cynomolgus Monkey Normal Brain Tissue
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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