Cytotoxins Directed at Interleukin-4 Receptors as Therapy for Human Brain Tumors
Part of the
Methods in Molecular Biology™
book series (MIMB, volume 166)
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic immune regulatory cytokine that has been extensively studied in the last decade. Activated T-lymphocytes, mast cells, and basophils (1, 2, 3) produce it. Consistent with the pleiotropic nature of this molecule, the receptors for IL-4 have been identified on many different cell types, including hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells (2, 3, 4). We have reported that a variety of solid tumor cells express a greater number of highaffinity IL-4 receptors (IL-4R) than normal cells (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12). We were first to report that murine solid cancer cells expressed high affinity IL-4R (4). We later reported that human renal-cell carcinoma and other solid tumor cells expressed functional IL-4R (6, 7). These receptors are functional because IL-4 can cause signal transduction, inhibit growth of some tumor cell lines, and increase expression of major histocompatibility antigens and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on some tumor cell lines (11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17). IL-4R is also expressed, although in low numbers, in normal immune cells such as T-cells, B-cells, monocytes, other blood cells such as eosinophils, basophils, and fibroblasts, and endothelial cells (1, 2, 3).
KeywordsToxicity Catheter Albumin Leukemia Creatinine
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