Enzymatic Transformations in Suspensions (II)

  • Adrie J. J. Straathof
  • Mike J. J. Litjens
  • Joseph J. Heijnen
Part of the Methods in Biotechnology book series (MIBT, volume 15)


Biotransformations in organic media with none of the components being in suspension are rare. As enzymes are virtually insoluble in organic solvents, homogeneous reactions are only feasible if the enzyme is solubilized by, for example, chemical modification (1) or coating it with a lipid (2). In general, one or more components are present in the reaction mixture in solid state (i.e., the enzyme, substrate[s], product[s], and adsorbents [e.g., molecular sieves or a mixture of a salt and its hydrate]). Thus, the majority of enzymatic transformations in organic media are suspension reactions. Interestingly, Kuhl et al. (3) described a reaction where as many as five solids (chymotrypsin powder, two amino-acid-derived substrates, one peptide product, and partly hydrated Na2CO3) were suspended in hexane. In this chapter, we will deal with enzymatic reactions in suspension where at least one of the reactants (substrate or product) is only partially dissolved. In practice, this means that the actual biotransformation is preceded by the dissolution of substrate and/or followed by the precipitation of product.


Solid Substrate Eutectic Mixture Kinetic Resolution Fatty Amide Enzymatic Transformation 
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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrie J. J. Straathof
    • 1
  • Mike J. J. Litjens
    • 1
  • Joseph J. Heijnen
    • 1
  1. 1.Kluyver Laboratory for BiotechnologyDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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