Biologically Based Risk Assessment Models for Developmental Toxicity

  • Christopher Lau
  • R. Woodrow Setzer
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 136)


Risk assessment is a process conducted by regulatory agencies to safeguard public health from the harmful effects of natural and man-made substances. Thus, a goal of risk assessors is to provide a numerical value of exposure to these substances, below which adverse effects to human health are assumed negligible. This value, termed the reference dose (RfD) or reference concentration (RfC), is commonly derived with the aid of a dose-response model that describes the relationship between the extent of adverse effects and the exposure levels of the toxic agent. For the evaluation of developmental toxicity of an agent, the typical response endpoints include alteration of reproductive outcomes and incidence of malformations (1). In a default situation, where little is known about the agent, the RfD is calculated from


Cleft Palate Developmental Toxicity Cleave Palate Human Health Risk Assessment Anatomical Defect 
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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Lau
    • 1
  • R. Woodrow Setzer
    • 1
  1. 1.Research and Administrative Support Division,National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency

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