Advertisement

Quantitative Measurement of Shear-Stress Effects on Endothelial Cells

  • Maria Papadaki
  • Larry V. Mclntire
Part of the Methods in Molecular Medicine™ book series (MIMM, volume 18)

Abstract

Over the past 20 yr, great strides have been made toward understanding the role of fluid hemodynamic forces in the vascular wall homeostasis at the molecular level. In vivo studies have demonstrated that blood vessels are adaptive to physiological changes in blood flow, with vessels tending to enlarge in areas of high flow and tending to reduce their lumen diameter in low-flow regimes (1,2). Furthermore, altered hemodynamics have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular disorders, such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis, and vessel wall injury. Vascular endothelial cells serve as a barrier between perfused tissues and flowing blood, and they are believed to act as a sensor of the local biomechanical environment. The hemodynamic forces generated in the vasculature include frictional wall shear-stress, cyclic strain, and hydrostatic pressure (3). For the purpose of this chapter, we will focus on methods for examining the link between fluid wall shear-stress and endothelial cell function. Advances in our understanding of the effects of shear-stress on endothelial cell function require that cell populations be exposed to controlled, well-defined, flow-induced shear-stress environments. Since in vivo studies have the inherent problem that they cannot quantitatively define the shearing forces or separate their effects from the other components of the hemodynamic system, in vitro flow studies using cultured cells are extensively used.

Keywords

Newtonian Fluid Volumetric Flow Rate Flow Chamber Cylindrical Tube Endothelial Cell Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Resnick, N. and Gimbrone, M. A. (1995) Hemodynamic forces are complex regulators of endothelial gene expression. FASEB J. 9, 874–882.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Davies, P. F. (1995) Flow-mediated endothelial mechanotransduction. Physiol. Rev. 75, 519–560.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Patrick, C. W., Sampath, R., and Mclntire, L. V. (1995) Fluid shear stress effects on vascular function, in Biomedical Engineering Handbook (Bronzino, J. D., ed.), CRC, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 1636–1655.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Slack, S. M. and Turitto, V. T. (1994) Flow chambers and their standardization for use in studies of thrombosis: on behalf of the subcommittee on Rheology of the Scientific and Standardization Committee of the ISTH. Thromb. Haemost. 72, 777–781.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Panaro, N. J. and Mclntire, L. V. (1993) Flow and shear stress effects on endothelial cell function, in Hemodynamic Forces and Vascular Cell Biology (Sumpio, B. E., ed.), R. G. Landers, Austin, TX, pp. 47–65.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tran-Son-Tray, R. (1993) Techniques for studying the effects of physical forces on mammalian cells and measuring cell mechanical properties, in Physical Forces and the Mammalian Cell (Frangos, J. A., ed.), Academic, San Diego, pp. 1–59.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Frangos, J. A., Eskin, S. G., Mclntire, L. V., and Ives, C. L. (1985) Flow effects on prostacyclin production by cultured human endothelial cells. Science 227, 1477–1479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Frangos, J. A., Mclntire, L. V., and Eskin, S. G. (1988) Shear stress induced stimulation of mammalian cell metabolism. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 32, 1053–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schnittler, H. J., Franke, R. P., Akbay, U., Mrowietz, C., and Drenckhahn, D. (1993) Improved in vitro rheological system for studying the effect of fluid shear stress on cultured cells. Am. J. Physiol. 265, C289–C298.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gopalan, P. K., Jones, D. A., Mclntire, L. V., and Wayne Smith, C. (1995) Cell adhesion under hydrodynamic flow conditions, in Current Protocols in Immunology (Goito, R., ed.), John Wiley, New York, pp. 7.29.1–7.29.23.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Koslow, A. R., Stromberg, R. R., Friedman, L. I., Lutz, R. J., Hilbert, S. L., and Schuster, P. (1986) A flow system for the study of shear forces upon cultured endothelial cells. J. Biomech. Eng. 108, 338–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Viggers, R. F., Wechezak, A. R., and Sauvage, L. R. (1986) An apparatus to study the response of cultured endothelium to shear stress. J. Biomech. Eng. 108, 332–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eskin, S. G., Ives, C. L., Mclntire, L. V., and Navarro, L. T. (1984) Response of cultured endothelial cells to steady flow. Microvasc. Res. 28, 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rosenhead, L. (1963) Laminar Boundary Layers. Oxford University, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cooke, B. M., Usami, S., Perry, I., and Nash, G. B. (1993) A simplified method for culture of endothelial cells and analysis of adhesion of blood cells under conditions of flow. Microvasc. Res. 45, 33–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dewey, C. F., Bussolari, S. R., Gimbrone, M. A., and Davies, P. F. (1981) The dynamic response of vascular endothelial cells to fluid shear stress. J. Biomech. Eng. 103, 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shmid-Schonbein, H., Gosen, J. V., Heinich, L., Klose, H. J., and Volger, E. (1973) A counter-rotating “rheoscope chamber” for the study of the microrheology of blood cell aggregation by microscopic observation and microphotometry. Microvasc. Res. 6, 366–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Franke, R. P., Grafe, M., Schnittler, H., Seiffge, D., Mittermayer, C., and Drenckhahn, D. (1984) Induction of human endothelial stress fibers by fluid shear stress. Nature. 307, 648–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Davies, P. F., Remuzzi, A., Gordon, E. J., Dewey, C. F., Jr., and Gimbrone, M. A., Jr. (1986) Turbulent fluid shear stress induces vascular endothelial cell turnover in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 2114–2117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nomura, H., Ishikawa, C., Komatsuda, T., Ando, J., and Kamiya, A. (1988) A disk-type apparatus for applying fluid shear stress on cultured endothelial cells. Biorheology. 25, 461–470.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ando, J., Nomura, H., and Kamiya, A. (1987) The effect of fluid shear stress on the migration and proliferation of cultured endothelial cells. Microvasc. Res. 33, 62–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hochmuth, R. M., Mohandas, N., Spaeth, E. E., Williamson, J. R., Blackshear, P. L., and Johnson, D. W. (1972) Surface adhesion, deformation and detachment at low shear of red cells and white cells. Amer. Soc. Artif. Int. Organs 18, 325–332.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Horbett, T. A., Waldburger, J. J., Ratner, B. D., and Hoffman, A. S. (1988) Cell adhesion to a series of hydrophilic-hydrophobic copolymers studied with a spinning disc apparatus. J. Biom. Mater. Res. 22, 383–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Weiss, L. (1961) The measurement of cell adhesion. Exper. Cell Res. Suppl. 8, 141–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fowler, H. W. and McKay, A. J. (1980) The measurement of microbial adhesion, in Microbial adhesion to surfaces (Berkey, R. C. W., Lynch, J. M., Melling, J., Rutter, P. R., and Vincent, B., eds.), John Wiley, Chichester, pp. 143–161.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cozens-Roberts, C., Quinn, J. A., and Lauffenberger, D. A. (1990) Receptor-mediated adhesion phenomena. Model studies with the Radical-Flow Detachment Assay. Biophys. J. 58, 107–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kuo, S. C. and Lauffenburger, D. A. (1993) Relationship between receptor/ligand binding affinity and adhesion strength. Biophys. J. 65, 2191–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Duddridge, J. E., Kent, C. A., and Laws, J. F. (1982) Effect of surface shear stress on the attachment of Pseudomonas fluoresceins to stainless steel under defined flow conditions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 24, 153–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cozens-Roberts, C., Lauffenburger, D. A., and Quinn, J. A. (1990) Receptor-mediated cell attachment and detachment kinetics. I. Probabilistic model and analysis. Biophys. J. 58, 841–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cozens-Roberts, C., Quinn, J. A., and Lauffenburger, D. A. (1990) Receptor-mediated cell attachment and detachment kinetics. II. Experimental model studies with the radial-flow detachment assay. Biophys. J. 58, 857–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Groves, B. J. and Riley, P. A. (1987) A miniaturized parallel-plate shearing apparatus for the measurement of cell adhesion. Cytobios 52, 49–62.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Usami, S., Chen, H. H., Zhao, Y., Chien, S., and Skalak, R. (1993) Design and construction of a linear shear stress flow chamber. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 21, 77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Badimon, L., Turitto, V., Rosemark, J. A., Badimon, J. J., and Fuster, V. (1987) Characterization of a tubular flow chamber for studying platelet interaction with biologic and prosthetic materials: deposition of indium Ill-labeled platelets on collagen, subendothelium, and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene [published erratum appears in J. Lab. Clin. Med. 111, 5]. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 110, 706–718.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Badimon, L., Badimon, J. J., Turitto, V. T., and Fuster, V. (1987) Thrombosis: studies under flow conditions. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 516, 527–40.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Redmond, E. M., Cahill, P. A., and Sitzmann, J. V. (1995) Perfused transcapillary smooth muscle and endothelial cell co-culture-a novel in vitro model, in Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Anim. 31, 601–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Baumgartner, H. R. (1973) The role of blood flow in platelet adhesion, fibrin deposition, and formation of mural thrombi. Microvasc. Res. 5, 167–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Turitto, V. T. and Baumgartner, H. R. (1975) Platelet interaction with subendothelium in a perfusion system: physical role of red blood cells. Microvasc. Res. 9, 335–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Turitto, V. T., Weiss, H. J., and Baumgartner, H. R. (1980) The effect of shear rate on platelet interaction with subendothelium exposed to citrated human blood. Microvasc. Res. 19, 352–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Turitto, V. T. and Baumgartner, H. R. (1979) Platelet interaction with subendothelium in flowing rabbit blood: effect of blood shear rate. Microvasc. Res. 17, 38–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lassila, R., Badimon, J. J., Vallabhajosula, S., and Badimon, L. (1990) Dynamic monitoring of platelet deposition on severely damaged vessel wall in flowing blood. Effects of different stenoses on thrombus growth. Arteriosclerosis 10, 306–315.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Badimon, L. and Badimon, J. J. (1989) Mechanisms of arterial thrombosis in nonparallel streamlines: platelet thrombi grow on the apex of stenotic severely injured vessel wall. Experimental study in the pig model. J. Clin. Invest. 84, 1134–1144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Truskey, G. A., Barber, K. M., Robey, T. C., Olivier, L. A., and Combs, M. P. (1995) Characterization of a sudden expansion flow chamber to study the response of endothelium to flow recirculation. J. Biomech. Eng. 117, 203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Schoephoerster, R. T., Oynes, F., Nunez, G., Kapadvanjwala, M., and Dewanjee, M. K. (1993) Effects of local geometry and fluid dynamics on regional platelet deposition on artificial surfaces. Arterioscler. Thromb. 13, 1806–1813.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Barstad, R. M., Roald, H. E., Cui, Y., Turitto, V. T., and Sakariassen, K. S. (1994) A perfusion chamber developed to investigate thrombus formation and shear profiles in flowing native human blood at the apex of well-defined stenoses. Arterioscler. Thromb. 14, 1984–1991.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Papadaki
    • 1
  • Larry V. Mclntire
    • 1
  1. 1.Cox Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Bioscience and BioengineeringRice UniversityHouston

Personalised recommendations